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Plan © Plan User fees in primary education: An investigation of the situation in Plan program countries Francis V. Sathya, Senior Learning Adviser, Plan 15 June 2005, Overseas Development Institute, London
© Plan Background of the investigation Three sets of data gathered mainly from secondary sources were analysed: % of population living below the national poverty line Net primary school enrolments Primary school completion Comparison of these data with program countries commitment to free education and the available user fee data.
© Plan Key treaty provisions on free and compulsory education Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. - Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) States Parties recognise the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular: (a) Make primary education compulsory and available free for all. - Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
© Plan Key treaty provisions… continued States Parties to the present Charter shall take all appropriate measures with a view to achieving the full realization of [the right to education] and shall in particular: a) provide free and compulsory basic education; - Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the African Child (1990)
© Plan The concept of user fees Cost recovery/user fees Any fees or charges paid by the users to access private or public services. No service comes free of charge Public services could be also funded by taxes (e.g. income, property, duties, VAT, council, corporate, etc.) Taxes are coercive User fees do not rely on coercion.
© Plan Constitutionality of user fees in education User fee in education is an issue because: 1.Education is a basic human right 2.Most countries have guaranteed free and compulsory education. 3.Could be dual payment (tax and fee) to many 4.The ethical argument of taxing people who do not have children or send their children in private schools.
© Plan Plans support to education Plan works in 45 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Plan supports basic education (primary and or pre-schools) programs in all countries. Plans support includes a wide range of inputs. E.g. infrastructure, furniture, uniforms, school fees, books, teacher training, etc. Plans support directly targets communities, families and schools. Plans support to education is part of an integrated strategy that also includes health, water and sanitation and livelihood.
© Plan Free and compulsory education in Plan program countries Free and compulsory education to all children is guaranteed either fully (23 countries) or partly (14 countries) in 37of the 44 program countries. 9 of the 23 countries that have fully guaranteed free and compulsory education only to citizens and residents. 7 of the 44 program countries that have not guaranteed are: Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Kenya, Niger, Senegal and Zambia.
© Plan User fees in Plan program countries
© Plan Most common user fees across continents Africa : Financial contribution East Asia: Uniforms and financial contributions South Asia: Tuition fees, text books and financial contributions. Latin America: Uniforms
© Plan Impact of user fees User fees exist irrespective of the level of poverty in countries. No clear connection between poverty and primary school enrolment. No linkage between poverty and completion No clear relationship between user fees and primary school enrolment and completion. Enrolment and completion at the primary level could be influenced more by the general value and importance attached to schools by families rather than their economic condition.
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