Presentation on theme: "RAPID Programme Day 1 Recap… Opps & Challengs – context improving but many challenges remain for CSOs. Problem tree analysis. RAPID Framework (what are."— Presentation transcript:
RAPID Programme Day 1 Recap… Opps & Challengs – context improving but many challenges remain for CSOs. Problem tree analysis. RAPID Framework (what are key issues) RAPID context assessments for group issues Tools / approaches people use. Context is crucial and defines what strategy is effective.
RAPID Programme Outline of the Workshop Day 2 Feedback Practical tools introduction Using tools Advocacy Issues Strategy development Evaluation & Close
RAPID Programme Context Questionnaire Most organizations are trying a range of policy influence activities (newsletters, pilots, lobbying) Most organizations feel they are having some success (med-high self rating) CSOs able to influence policy (middle) Context for CSO-policy engagement (middle)
RAPID Programme Main Barriers to Influence CSOs do not have sufficient knowledge about policy processes4 (6) CSO staff do not have sufficient capacity8 (11) CSO staff do not have enough time2 (1) CSOs do not have enough funds to do this5 (19) Policy processes are not open to CSO engagement5 (8) Policymakers do not see CSO evidence as credible5 (13) Policymakers tend to be corrupt7 (11)
RAPID Programme >44 = Low Kenya CSO Policy Entrepreneurs <23 = V. High <30 = High Carroll, T Lothike, F Nyaga, M Lenachuru, C Jelle, A Kisangau Mohamud, M Githuka, P Nganga, T Kaimui, M Gituthu, J Virginia Onyango, S Average
RAPID Programme Comments Tendency to prefer storytelling and networking. Several people dislike fixing and engineering is close by. One of you has a strong preference: networking
RAPID Programme Compared with others…
RAPID Programme Any questions?
RAPID Programme Tools for Policy Influence
RAPID Programme When it Works: Attitudes to HIV on the education sector it is evident that the project has institutionalised a new attitude towards HIV/AIDS education in primary schools …. Teachers' and pupils' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours have also changed. Primary School Action for Better Health Project in Kenya (PSABH)
RAPID Programme When it works best: Aid and Debt all the contributors emphasise the importance of researchers forming alliances with civil society. - Court and Maxwell, JID Special Issue
RAPID Programme To Maximize Chances You need to: better understand how policy is made and options for policy entrepreneurship; use evidence more effectively in influencing policy-making processes; build stronger connections with other stakeholders; actively participate in policy networks communicate better.
RAPID Programme An Analytical Framework The political context – political and economic structures and processes, culture, institutional pressures, incremental vs radical change etc. The evidence – credibility, the degree it challenges received wisdom, research approaches and methodology, simplicity of the message, how it is packaged etc External Influences Socio-economic and cultural influences, donor policies etc The links between policy and research communities – networks, relationships, power, competing discourses, trust, knowledge etc.
RAPID Programme A Practical Framework External Influences political context evidence links Campaigning, Lobbying Politics and Policymaking Media, Advocacy, Networking Research, learning & thinking Scientific information exchange & validation Policy analysis, & research
RAPID Programme What CSOs need to do What CSOs need to know What CSOs need to do How to do it Political Context: Evidence Links Who are the policymakers? Is there demand for ideas? What is the policy process? What is the current theory? What are the narratives? How divergent is it? Who are the stakeholders? What networks exist? Who are the connectors, mavens and salesmen? Get to know the policymakers. Identify friends and foes. Prepare for policy opportunities. Look out for policy windows. Work with them – seek commissions Strategic opportunism – prepare for known events + resources for others Establish credibility Provide practical solutions Establish legitimacy. Present clear options Use familiar narratives. Build a reputation Action-research Pilot projects to generate legitimacy Good communication Get to know the others Work through existing networks. Build coalitions. Build new policy networks. Build partnerships. Identify key networkers, mavens and salesmen. Use informal contacts
RAPID Programme Practical Tools Overarching Tools - The RAPID Framework - Using the Framework - The Entrepreneurship Questionnaire Context Assessment Tools - Stakeholder Analysis - Forcefield Analysis - Writeshops - Policy Mapping - Political Context Mapping Communication Tools - Communications Strategy - SWOT analysis - Message Design - Making use of the media Research Tools - Case Studies - Episode Studies - Surveys - Bibliometric Analysis - Focus Group Discussion Policy Influence Tools - Influence Mapping & Power Mapping - Lobbying and Advocacy - Campaigning: A Simple Guide - Competency self-assessment
RAPID Programme Policy Analysis: Methods and tools –RAPID Framework –Problem Situation Analysis (Tree Analysis) –Stakeholder Analysis –Policy Process Mapping –Force field analysis –Influence mapping –SWOT analysis
RAPID Programme Problem Tree Analysis The first step is to discuss and agree the problem or issue to be analysed. Next the group identify the causes of the focal problem – these become the roots – and then identify the consequences – which become the branches The heart of the exercise is the discussion, debate and dialogue that is generated as factors are arranged and re- arranged, often forming sub- dividing roots and branches
RAPID Programme Agenda setting Problem definition & analysis Policy tools Selection ImplementationEnforcement Policy evaluation Public Scientists Industry CSOs Media Government Source: Yael Parag
RAPID Programme Policy Tools selection Ministry of Finance NGOs Scientists Industry Stage outcomes may be: Direct regulation (strict or moderate) Economic incentives Information to the public Voluntary agreement Ministry of Environment Ministry of Industry & Trade Source: Yael Parag
RAPID Programme Stakeholder Analysis Clarify the policy change objective Identify all the stakeholders associated with this objective Organise the stakeholders in the matrice according to interest and power Develop strategy to engage with different stakeholders Keep Satisfied Engage Closely and Influence Actively Monitor (minimum effort) Keep Informed High Power Low High Interest
RAPID Programme Mapping Policy Processes AgendasFormulationImplementation Central Government Parliament Bureaucrats Civil Society State Government Implementation Civil Society
RAPID Programme Political Context Assessment Tool (e.g. from Middle East) Interests Extent of Interests of Policymakers HighMediumLow Public Interests136 Personal Interests541 Special Interests613 The macro political context The sector / issue process Policy implementation and practice Decisive moments in the policy process How policymakers think
RAPID Programme Force field Analysis Specific Change Identify Forces (Identify Priorities) (Develop Strategies)
RAPID Programme SWOT Analysis What type of policy influencing skills and capacities do we have? In what areas have our staff used them more effectively? Who are our strongest allies? When have they worked with us? Are there any windows of opportunity? What can affect our ability to influence policy? StrengthsWeaknesses OpportunitiesThreats Skills and abilities Funding lines Commitment to positions Contacts and Partners Existing activities Other orgs relevant to the issue Resources: financial, technical, human Political and policy space Other groups or forces
RAPID Programme Planning: Social Network Analysis Focus on structure of relationships Nodes and links between nodes Nodes: people, groups and organizations, etc. Links: social contacts, exchange of information, political influence, membership in org etc Social processes influence organizations and vice versa
RAPID Programme Policy Process Workshops Looking at internal policy processes – what works in DFID. Small, informal workshop with 7 staff. Participatory pair-wise ranking of factors influencing the success of 8 policy processes. Worked quite well. In DFID - agendas and processes rather than documents are key
RAPID Programme How were doing it in RAPID Clear Aim & Outputs Building credibility with research/action Employing the right staff & staff development Good internal systems (Mgt, Comms & KM) Programme approach: –Strategic opportunism –Research / practical advice / stimulating debate –Engagement with policy makers & practitioners –Community of practice cf network Financial opportunism
RAPID Programme How we advise: SMEPOL Egypt Policy Process Mapping RAPID Framework Stakeholder Analysis Force-Field Analysis SWOT Action Planning Evaluation & Adapting
RAPID Programme Individual / Group work: Use Force field analysis to identify key issues and strategic objectives Feedback –highlighting examples
RAPID Programme Force field Analysis Specific Change Identify Forces Identify Priorities Develop Strategies
RAPID Programme Individual / group work: On your own / in your group Do a SWOT analysis for your organization working on this case. Can I fulfil the strategy? What else would I need to do? (more skills, resources, partnerships, etc) Feedback – walkabout / examples
RAPID Programme SWOT Analysis StrengthsWeaknesses OpportunitiesThreats Skills and abilities Funding lines Commitment to positions Contacts and Partners Existing activities Other orgs relevant to the issue Resources: financial, technical, human Political and policy space Other groups or forces
RAPID Programme Group Feedback: c.3 minutes from a few people to present: Objective, Analysis of current situation (FFA), Strategy, SWOT, conclusion, what more needs to be done? Other participants to think about: Have they considered all the factors - is the approach comprehensive, logical and achievable?
RAPID Programme Tools for policy impact
RAPID Programme Communication / Advocacy Strategy 1.Clear SMART objectives 2.Identify the audience(s) 3.SMART Strategy 4.Identify the message(s) 5.Resources – staff, time, partners & $$ 6.Promotion – tools & activities 7.Evaluate & Adapt How? Who? What?
RAPID Programme 1. Objectives: What changes are you trying to bring about? Identify problems, impact of the problem and root causes (eg Problem Tree) Outline: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-Bound (SMART) objectives Advocacy Statement -Advocacy Statement - concise and persuasive statement that captures What you want to achieve, Why, How and by When?
RAPID Programme 2. Audience: Who needs to make these changes? Who has the power? What is their stance on the issue? Who influences them? Identify targets and influence (use stakeholder & context mapping tools)
RAPID Programme 3. Strategy: What are keys opportunities and constraints (FFA)? How can these be enhanced / reduced? Outline: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-Bound (SMART) approaches Approach: new, existing, piggyback other.
RAPID Programme 4. Message Why should things change (or what is the evidence to support your case?) How to make sure that the evidence is credible and legitimate? What the target audience can hear.... frameworks of thought Language, content, packaging, and timing
RAPID Programme Examples: Packaging: Story telling Narratives: identify and enhance learning episodes, explore values and inspire for change. Good Stories: need to include human interest element, tell it from the point of view of someone who is directly involved. Springboard Stories: Catalyse changes, capture attention and stimulate imaginations
RAPID Programme 5. Resources: a)What resources do you have / need? b)Identify your niche (SWOT) c)Skills needed in teams (PE Questionnaire) d)Who do you need to work with? (Stakeholder Mapping) e)Structures for collaborative working f)Benefits and pitfalls of collaborations
RAPID Programme 6. Promotion: a)How to access information and target? b)Who is a trusted and credible messenger? c)What is the most appropriate medium? ( campaigns, public mobilisation, formal and informal lobbying) d)How will you package your information? e)Role of the media?
RAPID Programme Different Approaches
RAPID Programme Issues: Persuasion Separate people from problem Focus on interests, not positions Invent options for mutual gain Insist on using objective criteria. Manage human emotion separately from the practical problem Highlight the human need to feel heard, understood, respected and valued.
RAPID Programme Targeting: Writing Effective Policy Papers Providing a solution to a policy problem Structural elements of a paper –Problem description –Policy options –Conclusion Key issues: Problem oriented, targeted, multidisciplinary, applied, clear, jargon-free. [Source: Young and Quinn, 2002]
RAPID Programme Issues: Lobbying Be an authority on the subject Include all group in the work Be positive in your approach Be aware of the agenda and language on the government in power Identify and target politicians Time your input Use the Media to lobby
RAPID Programme Networks Roles of Policy Networks –Filtering –Amplifying –Investor / Provider –Facilitator –Convening –Communities Policy Code Sharing Some networks net; some networks work.
RAPID Programme 7. Monitoring and Evaluating: a)What worked and why? b)What didnt work and why? c)What should be done differently?
RAPID Programme Monitoring: Most significant Change Collection of significant change (SC) stories from the field level Defining the domains of change Defining the reporting period Collecting SC stories Selecting the most significant of the stories Feeding back the results of the selection process Verification of stories Quantification and Secondary analysis
RAPID Programme Monitoring: Outcome Mapping Defines the program's outcomes as changes in the behaviour of direct partners Focuses on how programs facilitate change rather than how they control or cause change Recognizes the complexity of development processes together with the contexts in which they occur Looks at the logical links between interventions and outcomes, rather than trying to attribute results to any particular intervention Locates a program's goals within the context of larger development challenges beyond the reach of the program to encourage and guide the innovation and risk-taking necessary Requires the involvement of program staff and partners throughout the planning, monitoring, and evaluation stages
RAPID Programme Outcome Mapping: example Donor Centre National BT Policy WHO National NGO International NGO Bi/Multilateral Inter/National Media Friends Family
RAPID Programme As Individuals / Small Groups / Theme – Use your work so far to identify : 1.One objective 2.Identify the audience(s) 3.Identify the message(s) 4.Promotion – tools & activities Advocacy / Communications Plans
RAPID Programme Group Feedback: Strategy 3 examples: present the outline of a strategy: Objective, Audience, Message, Activities. What are next steps in taking it forward? Other participant to think about: Have they considered key factors - is the approach cohesive, logical and achievable?
RAPID Programme What we wanted to do? CSO-Policy in Kenya: Needs & next steps. What well do next Sources of Information Towards Pro-Poor Policy Entrepreneurs
RAPID Programme Future Assistance Access to the latest thinking on how to use evidence to influence policy8 (8) Best practice case studies3 (6) Information on policy issues3 (5) Support for more research (on policy issues)3 (9) Training / capacity building11 (9) Networking opportunities3 (9) Technical support on specific influencing initiatives5 (7) Training plus latest thinking. Mixed, Diverse Needs. Plus Funds!
RAPID Programme How will you take this work forward as individuals? What are key issues at the sectoral level? Are there campaigns / coalitions? What areas do you want more support? What else? Towards Pro-Poor Policy Entrepreneurs: Evaluation and Next Steps
RAPID Programme Evaluation Report Send CDs & publications assessment in 6 months Towards Pro-Poor Policy Entrepreneurs: Our Next Steps
RAPID Programme Further Information / Resources ODI Working Papers Bridging Research and Policy Book JID Special Issue Meeting Reports Tools for Impact