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Health, perceived discrimination, individual and ethnic social capital: Multilevel analysis of long-term limiting illness and disability using Citizenship.

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Presentation on theme: "Health, perceived discrimination, individual and ethnic social capital: Multilevel analysis of long-term limiting illness and disability using Citizenship."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health, perceived discrimination, individual and ethnic social capital: Multilevel analysis of long-term limiting illness and disability using Citizenship Survey 2005 University of Lancaster 28 February 2008 Gindo Tampubolon Institute for Social Change University of Manchester

2 Outline Three tasks on health and ethnicity Questions Social capital and health Data Results and discussion [Appendix: Why should one believe this?]

3 Three tasks on health and ethnicity Time or accumulation Place or ethnic composition Perceived discrimination

4 Questions on minorities health Are the incidences of limiting long term illness socially stratified and ethnically differentiated? What are the roles of individual, neighbourhood and ethnic social capital? What is the role of perceived discrimination?

5 Should various forms of social capital matter in improving health? Mobilisation effect Rapid diffusion of information effect

6 Data: Citizenship Survey 2005 Sample has 14,082 resps from 813 wards Including minority boost (5,150 – 37%) from wards with more than 1% population was minorities Focus on limiting long term illness or disability

7 Area-related factors Ward multiple deprivation index Proportion of minority or ethnic density Feeling of belonging to neighbourhood Trust in people in the neighbourhood Share values with people in the neighbourhood

8 Individual social capital Ethnic composition of friends Formal civic or associations participation Formal and informal help given & received

9 Multi-level model of incidences of limiting illness, Citizenship Survey Odds ratios significant at 5% level highlighted Base lineplus individualplus community social capital Ethnic density Multiple depriv Female Single Widow/divorced Foreign educated GCSE Higher edu Degree Age Income Manual Supervisor Intermediate Professional/mgr

10 Multi-level model of incidences of limiting illness, cont. Base lineplus individualplus community social capital Indian Other Asian Caribbean Other black Mix/other Length of resid Discrimination Same ethnic friends Civic participation Formal help Informal help Belong to neighbourhood0.833 People can be trusted0.907 Share values0.830 σ

11 Discussion I Baseline: some wards have significantly more ill or disabled residents than others Wards multiple deprivation contribute to illness Illness or disability is socially stratified and ethnically (positively) differentiated (cf. respiratory symptoms in Nazroo 2003) Perceived discrimination is significant Age and income are also significant

12 Discussion II: social capital Wards differences in distribution of illness disappear Wards deprivation disappears Social (class) stratification also disappears Perceived discrimination also disappears Positive ethnic difference strengthens Community shared values reduces incidences Puzzle: civic participation increases incidences

13 May be the ills or disableds choose to move to these areas? aka selection or sorting problem Two parts: – (unobserved) area attractiveness – plus (unobserved) individual attractedness & Matching by moving Unobserved area attractiveness: area random effect Matching: length of residence

14 Conclusion Incidences of long term limiting illness and disability is positively ethnically differentiated Sharing community values further reduces this incidences Area effect is primarily associated with or absorbed by community informal (shared values) and formal (civic participation) social capital


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