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© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 0 Inflation is... Inflation is a rise in the price level. Pure inflation is when goods and input prices rise at the same rate. One of the first acts of the Labour government in 1997 was to make the Bank of England independent –with a mandate to achieve low inflation.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 1 Some questions about inflation What are the causes of inflation? What are the effects and hence costs of inflation? What can be done about it? These are the questions we seek to answer in what follows.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 2 Inflation in the UK, 1950-2000 Source: Economic Trends Annual Supplement, Labour Market Trends
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 3 The quantity theory (1) The quantity theory of money says: Changes in the nominal money supply lead to equivalent changes in the price level (and money wages) but do not have effects on output and employment.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 4 The quantity theory (2) We can state it algebraically as: –MV = PY –whereV = velocity of circulation Y = potential level of real GDP P = the price level M = nominal money supply –Given constant velocity, if prices adjust to maintain real income at the potential level –an increase in nominal money supply leads to an equivalent increase in prices.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 5 Money, prices and inflation (1) Milton Friedman famously claimed Inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon. –i.e. it results when money supply grows more rapidly than real output. But notice that the quantity theory equation does not tell us whether prices determine quantity or vice versa.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 6 Money, prices and causation (a) In money market equilibrium, the supply of real money equals the demand for money i.e. –M/P = Y/V If the demand for real money is constant, M/P is constant. Monetary policy can fix M, in which case M P
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 7 Money, prices and causation (b) OR monetary policy can try and fix P over time, in which case P M This latter approach is known as inflation targeting in contrast to the former approach which indirectly targets the money supply.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 8 Money, prices and inflation (2) In any case, in the long run, potential real GDP and interest rates will significantly alter real money demand Therefore, in the long-run there may not be a perfect correspondence between excess monetary growth and inflation.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 9 Money, prices and inflation (3) Also, in the short run, the link between money and prices may be broken if: –the velocity of circulation is variable –prices are sluggish. For all the above reasons, we must therefore interpret the quantity theory with care.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 10 Inflation and interest rates FISHER HYPOTHESIS –a 1% increase in inflation will be accompanied by a 1% increase in interest rates REAL INTEREST RATE –Nominal interest rate minus inflation rate –i.e. the Fisher hypothesis says that real interest rates do not change much –but the nominal interest rate is the opportunity cost of holding money –so a change in nominal interest rates affects real money demand.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 11 Hyperinflation Hyperinflations are periods when inflation rates are very large During such periods there tends to be a flight from cash, i.e. people hold as little cash as possible –e.g. Germany in 1922-23, Hungary 1945-46, Brazil in the late 1980s. Large government budget deficits help to explain such periods –persistent inflation must be accompanied by continuing money supply growth
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 12 In 1958, Prof. A W Phillips demonstrated a statistical relationship between annual inflation and unemployment in the UK. The Phillips curve relates higher unemployment to lower inflation. It implies we can trade-off higher inflation for lower unemployment and vice versa. The Phillips curve (1)
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 13 The Phillips curve Inflation rate (%) Phillips curve Unemployment rate (%) U*
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 14 The long-run Phillips curve (1) The vertical long-run Phillips curve implies that sooner or later, the economy will return to U* whatever the inflation rate. The position of the short-run Phillips curve depends on expected inflation.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 15 The long-run Phillips curve (2) The long-run and short-run curves intersect when actual and expected inflation are equalised. The long run Phillips curve shows that in the long-run there is no trade-off between unemployment and inflation.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 16 The long-run Phillips curve and an increase in aggregate demand (1) … but what happens next? Unemployment Inflation PC 1 U* Suppose the economy begins at E, with unemployment at the natural rate U*, and inflation at 1 E 1 An increase in government spending funded by an expansion in money supply takes the economy to A, with lower unemployment (U 1 ) but inflation at 2. A 2 U1U1
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 17 If the nominal money supply continues to expand at the same rate thereafter, the economy will eventually move to B on PC 2. At B, inflation expectations coincide with actual inflation and nominal wages have been renegotiated so that the real wage and hence, employment are the same as before the monetary expansion, i.e. there is no trade-off between unemployment and inflation in the long-run LRPC Unemployment Inflation PC 1 U* 1 A E 2 U1U1 PC 2 B The Long-run Phillips curve and an increase in aggregate demand (2)
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 18 Unemployment Inflation PC 1 U* 1 A E 2 U1U1 PC 2 Effectively, the long-run Phillips curve is vertical, as the economy always adjusts back to U*. The short-run Phillips curve shows just a short-run trade-off: its position may depend upon expectations about inflation. B The long-run Phillips curve and an increase in aggregate demand (3) LRPC
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 19 Expectations and credibility Unemployment Inflation PC 1 1 U* Unemployment rises to U 1 U1U1 Suppose the economy begins at E, with a newly-elected government pledged to reduce inflation. E LRPC Monetary growth is cut to 2. 2 In the short run, the economy moves to A along the short- run Phillips curve. A PC 2 As expectations adjust, the short-run Phillips curve shifts to PC 2, and U* is restored at F. F
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 20 Inflation and unemployment in the UK 1978-2000 1978 1980 1986 1990 2000 1993
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 21 Inflation illusion People have inflation illusion when they confuse nominal and real changes. Welfare depends upon real variables, not nominal variables. If all nominal variables (prices and incomes) increase at the same rate, real income does not change.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 22 The costs of inflation (1) Fully anticipated inflation: Institutions adapt to known inflation: –nominal interest rates –tax rates –transfer payments there is no inflation illusion Some costs remain: –shoe-leather people economise on money holdings –menu costs firms need to alter price lists etc.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 23 The costs of inflation (2) Even if inflation is fully anticipated, the economy may not fully adapt –interest rates may not fully reflect inflation –taxes may become distorted fiscal drag may have unintended effects on tax liabilities capital and profits taxes may be distorted
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 24 The costs of unanticipated inflation Unintended redistribution of income –from lenders to borrowers –from private to public sector –from old to young Uncertainty –firms find planning more difficult under inflation, which may discourage investment This has been seen as the most important cost of inflation
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 25 Defeating inflation In the long run, inflation will be low if the rate of money growth is low. The transition from high to low inflation may be painful if expectations are slow to adjust. Policy credibility may speed the adjustment process.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 26 The Monetary Policy Committee Central Bank Independence may improve the credibility of anti-inflation policy. Since 1997 UK monetary policy has been set by the Bank of Englands Monetary Policy Committee –which has the responsibility of meeting the (underlying) inflation target –via interest rates –which are set according to inflation forecasts.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002 27 Why inflation targeting? Unpredictable changes in real money demand undermined attempts to use a nominal money target. Setting inflation targets involves an element of forward-looking. MPC performance so far has been creditable.
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