Presentation on theme: "The demand for labour Derived demand"— Presentation transcript:
0 Some important questions Why does a top professional footballer earn so much more than a professor?Why does an unskilled worker in the EU earn more than an unskilled worker in India?Why do market economies not manage to provide jobs for all their citizens who want to work?Why are different methods of production used in different countries?See the introduction to Chapter 10 in the main text.
1 The demand for labour Derived demand the demand for a factor of production is derived from the demand for the output produced by that factor.See the introduction to Chapter 10 in the main text.
2 Demand for factors in the long run The optimum mix of capital and labour depends on the relative prices of these factors.This helps to explain why more labour-intensive means of production are used in some countries where labour is relatively abundant.A change in the price of one factor will have both output and substitution affects.A rise in the wage rate leads tosubstitution towards more capital-intensive techniquesbut also leads to lower total output.See Section 10-1 in the main text.
3 The demand for labour in the short run The marginal value product of labour is therevenue obtained by selling the output producedby an extra workerMVPLEmploymentWage, MVPLUnder perfect competition, with diminishing marginal productivity:the firm maximises profit when the marginal cost of employing an extra worker equals the MVPL.W0See Section 10-2 in the main text, and Figure 10-2.
4 The demand for labour in the short run W0MVPLEmploymentWage, MVPL…this occurs at Ewhere wage = MVPL.EL*Employment is L*.Below L*, extra employmentadds more to revenue thanto labour costs.Above L*, the reverse is so.This decision is consistentwith the MR = SMC rule formaximising profit underperfect competition.See Section 10-2 in the main text, and Figure 10-2.
5 Monopoly and monopsony power in the labour market A firm may have MONOPOLY power in its output marketfacing a downward-sloping demand curveso the marginal revenue (MRPL) received from expanding output is less than the MVPLas the firm must reduce price to sell more.A firm may face MONOPSONY power in its input marketfacing an upward-sloping supply curve for inputsso the marginal cost of labour rises with employment.See Section 10-2 in the main text.
6 Monopoly and monopsony power (2) MVPLL1EmploymentMRPLL3Under perfect competition,a firm sets MVPL = W0and employs L1 workers.Facing a downward-sloping demand curvefor its product, the firmsets MRPL = W0and employs L3 workers.See Section 10-2 in the main text, and Figure 10-3.
7 Monopoly and monopsony power (3) A monopsonist recognisesthat additional employmentbids up wages for existingworkers, so MCL shows themarginal cost of an extraworker.MCLFacing a given goodsprice, the monopsonistsets MCL = MVPL andemploys L2 workers.L2W0See Section 10-2 in the main text, and Figure 10-3.MRPLMVPLL3L1Employment
8 Monopoly and monopsony power (4) For a monopsonist whoalso faces a downward-sloping demand curvefor the product, MCLis set equal to MRPL toemploy L4 workers.L4MCLL2W0So monopoly andmonopsony powerboth tend to reducethe firm’s demandfor labour.See Section 10-2 in the main text, and Figure 10-3.MRPLMVPLL3L1Employment
9 The supply of labour The LABOUR FORCE Labour supply all individuals in work or seeking employment.Labour supplyfor an individual, the decision on how many hours to offer to work depends on the real wagean individual’s attitude towards leisure and income determines if more or less hours of work are supplied at a higher real wage rate.See Section 10-4 in the main text.
10 The individual’s supply curve of labour Hours of work suppliedReal wageSS1For the labour supplycurve SS1, an increasein the real wage induceshigher labour supply.SS2Whereas for SS2,there comes a pointwhere a higher wageinduces less hours ofwork to be supplied:labour supply isbackward-bending.See Section 10-4 in the main text, and Figure 10-5.
11 Labour supply in aggregate If we consider the economy as a whole, or an industrya higher real wage rate also encourages a higher participation rateso labour supply is likely to be upward-sloping.See Section 10-4 in the main text.
12 Labour market equilibrium for an industry The industry supply curve SLSL slopes uphigher wages are needed to attract workers into the industryFor a given output demand curve, industry demand for labour slopes downEquilibrium is W0, L0.Quantityof labourWageDLSLW0L0See Section 10-5 in the main text, and Figure 10-7.
13 A shift in product demand Quantityof labourWageDLSLW0L0Beginning in equilibrium,a fall in demand for theproduct also shifts thederived demand for labourto D'LD'LThe new equilibrium isat W1, L1.L1W1See Section 10-5 in the main text, and Figure 10-7.
14 A change in wages in another industry so industry supply shiftsto the left –S'LQuantityof labourWageDLSLW0L0Again starting in equilibrium,an increase in wages inanother industry attractslabour,The new equilibrium isat W2, L2.L2W2See Section 10-5 in the main text, and Figure 10-7.
15 Transfer earnings and economic rent the minimum payments required to induce a factor of production to work in a particular job.Economic rentthe extra payment a factor receives over and above the transfer earnings needed to induce the factor to supply its services in that use.See Section 10-6 in the main text.
16 Transfer earnings and economic rent (2) In labour marketequilibrium at W0, L0,Dif workers were paid onlythe transfer earnings, theindustry would need onlypay AEL0 in wages.SSWageEW0But if all workers must bepaid the highest wageneeded to attract themarginal worker into theindustry (W0), then workersas a whole derive economicrent of 0AEW0.DSee Section 1206 in the main text, and Figure 10-8.AAL0Quantity