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Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence Sylvia Walby Lancaster University.

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Presentation on theme: "Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence Sylvia Walby Lancaster University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development of indicators and official statistics of gender-based violence Sylvia Walby Lancaster University

2 Introduction Focus: Indicators and statistics on gender- based violence Focus: Indicators and statistics on gender- based violence Just a sub-set of information needs Just a sub-set of information needs What are the priorities? What are the priorities? Contributions of academics, government statisticians, policy makers, NGOs. Contributions of academics, government statisticians, policy makers, NGOs.

3 National surveys Development of large scale national surveys in many countries Development of large scale national surveys in many countries Many methodological refinements Many methodological refinements Self-completion, wider range, new scaling Self-completion, wider range, new scaling Interest in developing comparable national findings through surveys: Interest in developing comparable national findings through surveys: UN, EU, IVAWS UN, EU, IVAWS What priorities? Next steps? What priorities? Next steps?

4 Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Stalking: Findings from British Crime Survey BCS: under continual development BCS: under continual development BCS self-completion module, 2001 BCS self-completion module, ,463 sample 22,463 sample Self-completion: computer turned to respondent to read and respond confidentially Self-completion: computer turned to respondent to read and respond confidentially Included domestic violence, sexual assault and stalking Included domestic violence, sexual assault and stalking Questions to both men and women Questions to both men and women

5 BCS Self-completion methodology Comparing prevalence rate Comparing prevalence rate Face-to-face interviewing Face-to-face interviewing Self completion Self completion Narrow definition DV (non-sexual, no threats) Narrow definition DV (non-sexual, no threats) face-to-face interviewing: 0.6% face-to-face interviewing: 0.6% self completion: 2.8% self completion: 2.8% Prevalence five times higher using self- completion methodology than face-to-face interviewing Prevalence five times higher using self- completion methodology than face-to-face interviewing

6 Comparing definitions in BCS self-complete DV Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS): DV Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS): types of actions (e.g. slapped, kicked, choked) types of actions (e.g. slapped, kicked, choked) frequency of incidents frequency of incidents Sexual assault and stalking Sexual assault and stalking DV Injuries DV Injuries Whether injured and how seriously Whether injured and how seriously Whether victim/survivor saw it as DV Whether victim/survivor saw it as DV Whether victim/survivor saw it as a crime Whether victim/survivor saw it as a crime

7 CTS and prevalence findings CTS Prevalence (in the last year) CTS Prevalence (in the last year) Domestic abuse, threats or force: 5% Domestic abuse, threats or force: 5% Domestic threats or force: 4% Domestic threats or force: 4% Domestic force: 3% Domestic force: 3% Beyond CTS Beyond CTS Rape or assault by penetration: women: 0.5% Rape or assault by penetration: women: 0.5% 54% of rape by intimate (including former) 54% of rape by intimate (including former)

8 Injuries Injuries Injuries Whether women injured in worst incident last year: Whether women injured in worst incident last year: Some injury: 72% Some injury: 72% No injury 28% No injury 28% Minor injury 46% Minor injury 46% Moderate injury 20% Moderate injury 20% Severe injury 6% Severe injury 6%

9 Victim/survivors views Whether female victim/survivor saw it as DV Whether female victim/survivor saw it as DV One incident, 56%; 4 or more times, 95% (last year) One incident, 56%; 4 or more times, 95% (last year) Whether female victim/survivor saw it as a crime: Whether female victim/survivor saw it as a crime: One incident, 24%; 4 or more, 66% (last year) One incident, 24%; 4 or more, 66% (last year) Injury: none 15%; minor 53%; severe 87% (lifetime) Injury: none 15%; minor 53%; severe 87% (lifetime)

10 Why Indicators? Simplify and abstract from complex data Simplify and abstract from complex data Relevant to policy making and assessment Relevant to policy making and assessment Provide a clear focus to measure change Provide a clear focus to measure change National Plan; Performance indicators; Public Service Agreements for Comprehensive Spending Review National Plan; Performance indicators; Public Service Agreements for Comprehensive Spending Review Enable international comparisons Enable international comparisons Provide a different contribution than complex statistics, qualitative data, personal accounts. Provide a different contribution than complex statistics, qualitative data, personal accounts. Depend on large population surveys Depend on large population surveys

11 Productive tension between specificity and mainstreaming Specific nature of gender-based violence and detailed appreciation of distinctive nuances? Specific nature of gender-based violence and detailed appreciation of distinctive nuances? AND/OR AND/OR More general categories that facilitate addressing priorities within the mainstream, including crime? More general categories that facilitate addressing priorities within the mainstream, including crime?

12 Types of indicators Outcome Outcome The amount of gender based violence The amount of gender based violence Policy development and implementation Policy development and implementation Identifying extent to which policy is implemented on the ground Identifying extent to which policy is implemented on the ground

13 Definitions Gender-based violence – UN Gender-based violence – UN Domestic violence – HO? Domestic violence – HO? Violence against women - WNC Violence against women - WNC Range of Actions Range of Actions domestic violence, sexual violence, stalking, FGM, forced marriage, honour crimes, trafficking... domestic violence, sexual violence, stalking, FGM, forced marriage, honour crimes, trafficking... Range of Perpetrators Range of Perpetrators Partner, domestic non-partner, non-domestic? Partner, domestic non-partner, non-domestic?

14 Outcome indicators Home Office (2004) DV plan: Home Office (2004) DV plan: 1. Domestic homicide – Robust, but small proportion of dv 2. Prevalence Rate of domestic violence in the population Rate of domestic violence in the population headcount headcount

15 Prevalence: Is it the best indicator? Advantages Advantages Uses concept of DV as a course of conduct Uses concept of DV as a course of conduct Conventional measure among DV experts Conventional measure among DV experts Disadvantages Disadvantages Hard to translate into crime statistics, which are based on number of incidents Hard to translate into crime statistics, which are based on number of incidents Does not contain measure of severity Does not contain measure of severity Specialised, not mainstream, indicator Specialised, not mainstream, indicator

16 Severity of gender-based violence and crime statistics Frequency/Incidents Frequency/Incidents Crimes are counted as incidents Crimes are counted as incidents If dv/gender based violence is to be mainstreamed into crime statistics there needs to be an incident count If dv/gender based violence is to be mainstreamed into crime statistics there needs to be an incident count Injuries Injuries Violent crime categories are differentiated primarily by injury level, though also intent Violent crime categories are differentiated primarily by injury level, though also intent To mainstream, injuries need to be known for each incident To mainstream, injuries need to be known for each incident

17 Prevalence, incidents and gender Use of prevalence rather than incidents reduces the appearance of gender inequality in official statistics Use of prevalence rather than incidents reduces the appearance of gender inequality in official statistics Domestic violence prevalence: Domestic violence prevalence: 4% women, 2% men 4% women, 2% men Average no. incidents of domestic violence: Average no. incidents of domestic violence: women 20, men 7 women 20, men 7 DV experienced as one incident only: DV experienced as one incident only: 28% women, 47% men 28% women, 47% men Total incidents DV: Total incidents DV: 12.9 million against women, 2.4m men 12.9 million against women, 2.4m men Gender ratio prevalence: 2:1 Gender ratio prevalence: 2:1 Gender ratio incidents: 5:1 Gender ratio incidents: 5:1

18 Prevalence and incidents Prevalence use of course of conduct might mean that a series of 20 incidents may count only as one crime, thereby underestimating the proportion of violent crime that is dv/gender-based violence Prevalence use of course of conduct might mean that a series of 20 incidents may count only as one crime, thereby underestimating the proportion of violent crime that is dv/gender-based violence Prevalence: single events count, thereby skewing the gender composition towards image of symmetry Prevalence: single events count, thereby skewing the gender composition towards image of symmetry

19 Injuries, Acts, and the CTS Conflict Tactics Scale uses actions as severity measure Conflict Tactics Scale uses actions as severity measure Crime Statistics use predominantly injuries as severity measure (though also intention) Crime Statistics use predominantly injuries as severity measure (though also intention) Injuries are more gender asymmetrical than actions Injuries are more gender asymmetrical than actions Minor force (e.g. slap): 49% women 36% men sustain physical injury Minor force (e.g. slap): 49% women 36% men sustain physical injury Severe force (e.g. choke, weapon): 77% women 56% men sustain physical injury Severe force (e.g. choke, weapon): 77% women 56% men sustain physical injury CTS suggests lesser gender inequality than crime categories CTS suggests lesser gender inequality than crime categories CTS does not usually include sexual assault CTS does not usually include sexual assault

20 Crime categories for indicators? Crime categories: Crime categories: Use incidents to measure extent Use incidents to measure extent Use (primarily) injuries to measure severity Use (primarily) injuries to measure severity Advantages: Advantages: Mainstreams Mainstreams Show gender dimensions of DV more effectively than CTS and prevalence Show gender dimensions of DV more effectively than CTS and prevalence

21 Data needs? Prevalence Prevalence AND Crime based definitions of incidents, using injuries not acts AND Crime based definitions of incidents, using injuries not acts DV to include full range of actions, including domestic sexual assaults DV to include full range of actions, including domestic sexual assaults Gender-based violence category to include DV, non-domestic sexual assaults, FGM, honour crimes Gender-based violence category to include DV, non-domestic sexual assaults, FGM, honour crimes

22 Implications for British Crime Survey Self-completion important innovation Self-completion important innovation Both prevalence and incidents Both prevalence and incidents Collect data additionally within crime categories Collect data additionally within crime categories Name wider range of forms of gender based violence e.g. FGM Name wider range of forms of gender based violence e.g. FGM Collect data on each incident (not worst or last) Collect data on each incident (not worst or last) Injury (and intent) Injury (and intent) Victim forms to be completed on each incident Victim forms to be completed on each incident Increase maximum no. forms for each respondent Increase maximum no. forms for each respondent Findings to be integrated into crime count Findings to be integrated into crime count Number of BCS violent crimes will rise Number of BCS violent crimes will rise DV will appear as a higher % of BCS violent crime DV will appear as a higher % of BCS violent crime

23 Policy Performance Ministries and agencies have roles in reduction of gender-based violence Ministries and agencies have roles in reduction of gender-based violence Criminal justice system Criminal justice system Health Health Local authorities Local authorities Housing and refuges Housing and refuges Social services Social services Civil legal services Civil legal services Few have the evidence to assess their performance, rarely knowing how much their services are used for DV Few have the evidence to assess their performance, rarely knowing how much their services are used for DV Reviewed in Cost of Domestic Violence Reviewed in Cost of Domestic Violence

24 Service indicators What do we need to know? What do we need to know? What outcome and policy indicators? What outcome and policy indicators? Local authorities Local authorities New best value indicator includes DV New best value indicator includes DV

25 Health developments in recording/measuring Screening and diagnostic codes Screening and diagnostic codes Screening dilemmas Screening dilemmas Screen when referrals not ready? Screen when referrals not ready? BCS: BCS: Asked cause of injuries: 94% Asked cause of injuries: 94% Disclosed cause of injuries: 74% Disclosed cause of injuries: 74% Referred to anyone else: 26% Referred to anyone else: 26% Diagnostic code for DV Diagnostic code for DV Primary not secondary code: under development Primary not secondary code: under development E.g. primary DV; secondary broken wrist E.g. primary DV; secondary broken wrist

26 Criminal Justice System (CJS): recorded crimes, criminal statistics Policy change in CJS and its implications Policy change in CJS and its implications Attrition rate for rape high and rising (Kelly et al) Attrition rate for rape high and rising (Kelly et al) Conviction rate for reported rapes, 5.6% in 2002 Conviction rate for reported rapes, 5.6% in 2002 Recognised need for DV attrition rate (HO DV Nat Plan) Recognised need for DV attrition rate (HO DV Nat Plan) Rate of reporting to police (compare BCS rate with reported crimes) Rate of reporting to police (compare BCS rate with reported crimes) Recording of reports by police (recorded crime or domestic incident) Recording of reports by police (recorded crime or domestic incident) Detection Detection Arrest (currently sole performance measure) Arrest (currently sole performance measure) Prosecution Prosecution Completed court case Completed court case Conviction (criminal statistics) Conviction (criminal statistics)

27 HO Objectives for reducing attrition of DV in CJS in National Plan 2004 Objective 4. Increase the rate at which domestic violence is reported... to the police.. Objective 4. Increase the rate at which domestic violence is reported... to the police.. BUT No record of number of recorded crimes by police in official statistics for DV BUT No record of number of recorded crimes by police in official statistics for DV Objective 5. Increase the rate at which domestic violence incidents result in sanction/detections... Objective 5. Increase the rate at which domestic violence incidents result in sanction/detections... BUT No record of DV detections/sanctions in official statistics BUT No record of DV detections/sanctions in official statistics Objective 6. Increase the rate at which sanction detections are converted into offences/offenders brought to justice. Objective 6. Increase the rate at which sanction detections are converted into offences/offenders brought to justice. BUT No record of DV criminal convictions in criminal statistics BUT No record of DV criminal convictions in criminal statistics

28 CJS data requirements No recorded crime statistics on domestic violence, since not a specific criminal offence No recorded crime statistics on domestic violence, since not a specific criminal offence BUT arrest rates for DV are produced, so there is a record of crime by whether domestic; but not public BUT arrest rates for DV are produced, so there is a record of crime by whether domestic; but not public Recommend: relevant recorded crimes are cross-classified as domestic or not as key aspect of recorded crime and criminal statistics Recommend: relevant recorded crimes are cross-classified as domestic or not as key aspect of recorded crime and criminal statistics Met did this in 1999 (cf Health diagnostic codes) Met did this in 1999 (cf Health diagnostic codes) Otherwise impossible to track DV in CJS statistics to evaluate progress on HO objectives Otherwise impossible to track DV in CJS statistics to evaluate progress on HO objectives

29 Conclusions Much current development of statistical data and proposals for indicators Much current development of statistical data and proposals for indicators Nationally and internationally Nationally and internationally BCS 2001 self-completion produced information on implications of different classifications BCS 2001 self-completion produced information on implications of different classifications BCS: further development of outcome indicators BCS: further development of outcome indicators Mainstream into crime categories, as well as for specific needs Mainstream into crime categories, as well as for specific needs Numbers of incidents and injuries for each, as well as prevalence Numbers of incidents and injuries for each, as well as prevalence Both DV and wider range of gender-based violence Both DV and wider range of gender-based violence International standards for EU and global comparisons? International standards for EU and global comparisons? Recorded crime and criminal statistics: Recorded crime and criminal statistics: cross-classify violent crimes by domestic cross-classify violent crimes by domestic Further development of public services performance indicators Further development of public services performance indicators


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