Presentation on theme: "Greg Ogilvie & William Dunn University of Alberta Task Repetition as a Pedagogical."— Presentation transcript:
Greg Ogilvie & William Dunn University of Alberta Task Repetition as a Pedagogical Strategy: Interactional Effects and Affective Responses
... I think our field must soon be known for the incredible leaps in logic we make in applying our research findings to classroom teaching Hatch, 1979, p.123
If language acquisition research wants to feed into teaching methodology, the research environment has to be willing to move out of the laboratory and into the classroom Foster, 1998, p.21
Effects of Task Repetition Repetition of identical tasks has resulted in improved linguistic output for immediate repetition (Lynch & Maclean, 2000, 2001), and repetition ranging from 3 days (e.g., Bygate, 1997) to 10 weeks (e.g., Bygate, 2001; Bygate & Samuda, 2005) Repetition of types of tasks has not yielded positive results (e.g., Bygate, 1999, 2001; Gass et al., 1999)
Research conducted on task repetition has largely been conducted in a laboratory setting
Exact task repetition is usually unlikely to be the best way of implementing this [ways of using task repetition] in classrooms Bygate, 1999, p.43
Research Questions 1)What influence does task repetition have on students interactional patterns? 2)What are students affective responses to task repetition?
Context ESL program in the Faculty of Extension at a large Canadian university Two intermediate courses and one advanced course 31 students participated
The Study Story re-telling task using Mr. Bean videos completed in dyads Identical task completed on consecutive days
Interactional Patterns The interaction of dyads was recorded and transcribed Two dyads from each class were recorded Data from four dyads included in analysis Analyzed for language related episodes (LREs) based on categories established in Swain (1998) – lexical, grammatical or orthographic
Affect 1) Questionnaires administered after completing task on two occasions Assessed two aspects of affect - feelings and needs (Stevick, 1999) 2) Semi-structured conversational interview conducted with participants after repeating tasks 3) Time spent on task
Interactional Patterns GroupNumber of Lexical LREs Number of Grammatical LREs Number of Orthographic LREs Total Number of LREs Group #1a Group #1b92213 Group #2a95216 Group#2b Group #3a Group #3b Group #4a Group #4b
Affective Dimension Perceptions about the task were generally positive Good exercise because promotes the interaction and improve our skills in speaking and listening. The process of the task is good, and group discuss helped a lot. The story is funny as well.
Assessment of Task Student Response Horrible (1) Poor (2) Fair (3) Good (4) Excellent (5) Outstand ing (6) Average First Task Second Task
Drawbacks to Task Repetition It is a little boring maybe because you write the same things twice and it is a little boring. Boredom
Drawbacks to Task Repetition Boredom Actually, second is kind of losing interest. It is kind of boring. So I pretty enjoy it the first time I watched the video and write the summary... But I lose interest, I dont have the passion and the stuff to re-write everything. First time I almost write one page but the second I just wrote half a page.
Benefits of Task Repetition Although it was a repetition, the second time was useful for learning and look for synonyms. I think was a little boring because write again about the same, but in the other way it is interesting because addition, some parts, some details more important in this time and I want to understand more clearly about the message.
Benefits of Task Repetition Empowering lower-level students Because first time just, just thinking how to write the, describe the story and ignore the grammar and vocabulary. Second time we think about that, about that grammar and vocabulary and then use the better way to describe the story.
Completing the task on two occasions reinforced previous learning and enabled learners to collaboratively focus on more complex issues Reinforced cognitive benefits of task repetition in group interaction in an intact classroom setting
Learner perceptions of task repetition are largely based on individual preferences Three categories of learner emerged: 1)Bored and exhibited limited effort 2)Bored but recognized pedagogical value 3)Enjoyed repetition
Conclusion The benefits of task repetition found in other studies are likely applicable to the classroom setting Teachers should not be deterred from experimenting with task repetition, in particular with low level learners who may benefit from the confidence gained in completing a task on multiple occasions
Task repetition is a viable option for classroom instruction despite intuitive fears about boredom
References Bygate, M. (1996). Effects of task repetition: appraising the developing language of learners. In J. Willis & D. Willis (Eds.), Challenge and change in language teaching (pp ). Oxford: MacMillan Heinemann. Bygate, M. (1999). Task as the context for the framing, re-framing and un-framing of language. System, 27, Bygate, M. (2001). Effects of task repetition on the structure and control of oral language. In M. Bygate, P. Skehan, & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching and testing (pp ). Harlow: Pearson Education. Bygate, M., & Samuda, V. (2005). Integrative planning through the use of task repetition. In R. Ellis (Ed.), Planning and task performance in a second language (pp ). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Foster, P. (1998). A classroom perspective on the negotiation of meaning. Applied Linguistics, 19, 1-23.
Gass, S., Mackey, A., Alvarez-Torres, M.J., & Fernandez-Garcia, M. (1999). The effects of task repetition on linguistic output. Language Learning, 49, Hatch, E. (1979). Apply with caution. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 2, Lynch, T., & Maclean, J. (2000). Exploring the benefits of task repetition and recycling for classroom language learning. Language Teaching Research, 4, Lynch, T., & Maclean, J. (2001). A case of exercising: Effects of immediate task repetition on learners performance. In M. Bygate, P. Skehan, & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching pedagogical tasks: Second language learning, teaching, and testing (pp ). Harlow: Pearson Education. Stevick, E.W. (1999). Affect in learning and memory: From alchemy to chemistry. In J. Arnold (Ed.), Affect in language learning (pp ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Swain, M. (1998). Focus on form through conscious reflection. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.