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Hammouda Salhi Hammouda Salhi University of Carthage, Tunisia UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

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Presentation on theme: "Hammouda Salhi Hammouda Salhi University of Carthage, Tunisia UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Hammouda Salhi Hammouda Salhi University of Carthage, Tunisia UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

3 U sing Corpora in Contrastive and Translation Studies (UCCTS 2010) U sing Corpora in Contrastive and Translation Studies (UCCTS 2010) 27th July th July 2010 Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK 27th July th July 2010 Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

4 T ranslating ambiguous lexical items using a parallel corpus: A case study of good in the EAPCOUNT H ammouda S alhi University of Carthage, Tunisia Slide 3http://translationinfo.webs.com UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

5 Slide 4http://translationinfo.webs.com UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK Polysemy in language and translation Get Constitution Polysemy is ubiquitous in language and its investigation has a considerable potential for illuminating human cognition (Brown and Witkowski, 1983:83) Shall

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7 Slide 6 UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK Significance of lexical meaning Would you please give your honest opinion about solutions to the food shortage in the rest of the world? The survey was a huge failure... The survey was a huge failure... In Africa: food ??? In Africa: food ??? In Eastern Europe: honest ??? In Eastern Europe: honest ??? In Western Europe: shortage ??? In Western Europe: shortage ??? In China: opinion ??? In China: opinion ??? In the Middle East: solution ??? In the Middle East: solution ??? In South America: please ??? In South America: please ??? And in the USA: the rest of the world ??? And in the USA: the rest of the world ???

8 Slide 7http://translationinfo.webs.com UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK Aims: To draw attention to the centrality of lexical ambiguity in the translation process To draw attention to the centrality of lexical ambiguity in the translation process To propose a corpus approach for the investigation of CP in translation To propose a corpus approach for the investigation of CP in translation To reveal the ambiguous behavior of good in the EAPCOUNT To reveal the ambiguous behavior of good in the EAPCOUNT To show how to enhance translator training through insights into such an ambiguous behavior To show how to enhance translator training through insights into such an ambiguous behavior

9 Presentation structure Slide 8http://translationinfo.webs.com UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK 1. Translation literature and lexical ambiguity 2. The Generative Lexicon theory 3. The EAPCOUNT 4. Translating prototypical meanings of items 5. The ambiguous behavior of good as revealed by the EAPCOUNT 6. Final message

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11 Slide 10http://translationinfo.webs.com Translation literature and lexical ambiguity UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK Lexical ambiguity is handled as part of : Lexical ambiguity is handled as part of : Structural ambiguity Structural ambiguity eg. Flying planes can be dangerous eg. Flying planes can be dangerous Some translation universals such as simplification (Toury, 1995) Some translation universals such as simplification (Toury, 1995) Problems of anaphoric reference, eg. Pronouns Problems of anaphoric reference, eg. Pronouns Gender problem, (Baker, 1992: 90) Gender problem, (Baker, 1992: 90) Taken : Taken : mainly from a paradigmatic perspective mainly from a paradigmatic perspective as a problem of vagueness and underspecification as a problem of vagueness and underspecification As an accidental problem in language and translation: treated on a case-by-case basis As an accidental problem in language and translation: treated on a case-by-case basis What is needed: an empirical investigation of What is needed: an empirical investigation of lexical ambiguity in translation

12 Slide 11http://translationinfo.webs.com Developments NLP and MT Importance of lexical ambiguity Importance of lexical ambiguity Centrality of the disambiguation process: one of the greatest challenges for MT researchers (Ping, 2009) Centrality of the disambiguation process: one of the greatest challenges for MT researchers (Ping, 2009) UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

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14 Slide 13http://translationinfo.webs.com The Generative Lexicon theory One of the main assumptions of the theory One of the main assumptions of the theory One of the main contributions One of the main contributions Contrastive polysemy Contrastive polysemy a. The bank of the river, b. The richest bank in the city (synchronically NOT related meanings) Complementary polysemy Complementary polysemy a. The school was built in 1932, b. What will you do when you finish school?, c. The Venetian school of painting, etc. (synchronically related meanings as they have a common core meaning and they complement each other in each context ) Prototypical meaning vs. word usage Prototypical meaning vs. word usage UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

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16 Slide 15http://translationinfo.webs.com The EAPCOUNT The English-Arabic Parallel Corpus Of United Nations Texts The English-Arabic Parallel Corpus Of United Nations Texts 261 texts aligned on a paragraph basis, and 6.8 million tokens 261 texts aligned on a paragraph basis, and 6.8 million tokens Consists mainly, but not exclusively, of resolutions and annual reports issued by different UN organizations and institutions Consists mainly, but not exclusively, of resolutions and annual reports issued by different UN organizations and institutions Time-frame of about 14 years (1996 – 2009): 93.87% of the texts were produced over a period of 9 years, namely from 2001 to 2009 Time-frame of about 14 years (1996 – 2009): 93.87% of the texts were produced over a period of 9 years, namely from 2001 to 2009 UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

17 Slide 16http://translationinfo.webs.com Compiling the EAPCOUNT UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

18 17 UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

19 Slide 18http://translationinfo.webs.com Translating prototypical meanings items UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK bad offices do not yield good achievements Arabic: ( مكاتب سيئة لم تسفر انجازات جيدة ) Arabic: ( مكاتب سيئة لم تسفر انجازات جيدة ) The offices of bad did not produce good achievements The offices of bad did not produce good achievements Chinese : ( ) Chinese : ( ) Office does not produce good results in bad Office does not produce good results in bad French : (mauvais offices ne donnent pas de bonnes réalisations) French : (mauvais offices ne donnent pas de bonnes réalisations) Bad services do not give good realizations Bad services do not give good realizations German (Bad Büros nicht erbringen gute Leistungen) German : (Bad Büros nicht erbringen gute Leistungen) Good performances do not produce bath of office Good performances do not produce bath of office Italian : (uffici cattivo non danno buoni risultati) : Italian : (uffici cattivo non danno buoni risultati) : offices I win doesn't give good results offices I win doesn't give good results Portuguese ( escritórios ruim não rendem bons resultados) : Portuguese : ( escritórios ruim não rendem bons resultados) : offices bad not yield good results offices bad not yield good results Spanish (oficinas mal no dan buenos resultados): Spanish : (oficinas mal no dan buenos resultados): Offices badly do not give good results Offices badly do not give good results Swahili (ofisi mbaya wala mavuno mafanikio mema): Swahili : (ofisi mbaya wala mavuno mafanikio mema): bad office success and good harvest bad office success and good harvest

20 Slide 19http://translationinfo.webs.com The ambiguous behavior of good in the EAPCOUNT UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK The concordancer AntConc 3.2.1w found 326 instances of good in the EAPCOUNT, 2 instances are nouns The concordancer AntConc 3.2.1w found 326 instances of good in the EAPCOUNT, 2 instances are nouns Total number of heads: 28 Total number of heads: 28 Number of Arabic equivalents: 22 Number of Arabic equivalents: instances of the adjective good in the EAPCOUNT 22 different Arabic equivalents are found for good in the corpus

21 Occurrences of good in the EAPCOUNT 1 Slide 20 UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

22 Occurrences of good in the EAPCOUNT 2 Slide 21 UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

23 Slide 22http://translationinfo.webs.com Case of domain-specific collocations Case of the equivalent رشيد ( ra ʃ īd ) رشيد (ra ʃ īd) literally right-guided, following the right path, etc.) 91 occurrences رشيد (ra ʃ īd) literally right-guided, following the right path, etc.) 91 occurrences Good in this case collocates with only one head noun, namely Governance (2.77% of the heads) Good in this case collocates with only one head noun, namely Governance (2.77% of the heads) It is specific to the diplomatic context It is specific to the diplomatic context Case of the equivalent حميدة ( ħamīda ) حميدة (ħamīda) literally benign, benignant, etc.) 72 occurrances, حميدة (ħamīda) literally benign, benignant, etc.) 72 occurrances, Good in this case collocates with only one head noun, namely offices (masā ʕ in) (2.77% of the heads) Good in this case collocates with only one head noun, namely offices (masā ʕ in) (2.77% of the heads) It is specific to the diplomatic context It is specific to the diplomatic context When a collocation is domain-specific is becomes harder for trainees to find appropriate equivalents for both the node and collocate as it requires specialized knowledge of, say, diplomatic language When a collocation is domain-specific is becomes harder for trainees to find appropriate equivalents for both the node and collocate as it requires specialized knowledge of, say, diplomatic language UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

24 Slide 23http://translationinfo.webs.com Case of typical collocations Case of typical collocations Case of the equivalent جيد ( ʒ ajid) جيد ( ʒ ajid, literally of good quality, well, etc): 81 occurrences جيد ( ʒ ajid, literally of good quality, well, etc): 81 occurrences Good collocates with 20 different heads:(55.55% of the heads): Practice, relationships, cooperation, roads, political instincts, effect, progress, examples, alternatives, education, coordination, data, institutional capacity, level of awareness, job, living, position, start, stead. Good collocates with 20 different heads: (55.55% of the heads): Practice, relationships, cooperation, roads, political instincts, effect, progress, examples, alternatives, education, coordination, data, institutional capacity, level of awareness, job, living, position, start, stead. Trainees tend to attach to it more importance than it really merits Trainees tend to attach to it more importance than it really merits UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

25 Slide 24http://translationinfo.webs.com Case of non-typical collocations Case of the equivalent عظيم ( ʕ adhīm) عظيم ʕ adhīm, literally magnificent, great, etc): 2 occurrences عظيم ʕ adhīm, literally magnificent, great, etc): 2 occurrences Good in this case collocates with only one head noun, namely Friday (2.77% of the heads) Good in this case collocates with only one head noun, namely Friday (2.77% of the heads) Not a common collocation in the Arabic language, especially among the Muslim community Not a common collocation in the Arabic language, especially among the Muslim community UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

26 Slide 25http://translationinfo.webs.com General findings Ambiguity degree of good : 79% Ambiguity degree of good : 79% Good is a very ambiguous item. Good is a very ambiguous item. The number of heads modified by good is 28 The number of heads modified by good is 28 The number of existing equivalents is 22. The number of existing equivalents is 22. In the 79% of the instances, good requires a new equivalent whenever it combines with a new head noun. In the 79% of the instances, good requires a new equivalent whenever it combines with a new head noun. The ambiguous behavior of this adjective and the establishment of equivalence at both word and collocation levels depend heavily on the head noun that it modifies. UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

27 Final Message آخر الكلام Final Message آخر الكلام B ecause the act of disambiguating items is part and parcel of the process of translation, lexical ambiguity should be handled as the norm rather than the exception in translation and the inner voice of professional translators should be heard now by trainee translators. Thank You وشكرا Merci وشكرا Merci ANY QUESTIONS ? Slide 26 UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

28 Final Message آخر الكلام Final Message آخر الكلام Slide 27 UCCTS 2010 Ormskirk, UK

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