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1 A Sociocultural Model of Impairment Disability © DEVVA KASNITZ AND RUSSELL SHUTTLEWORTH University of California, Berkeley December, 2003

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Presentation on theme: "1 A Sociocultural Model of Impairment Disability © DEVVA KASNITZ AND RUSSELL SHUTTLEWORTH University of California, Berkeley December, 2003"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 A Sociocultural Model of Impairment Disability © DEVVA KASNITZ AND RUSSELL SHUTTLEWORTH University of California, Berkeley December, 2003 *

2 2 Goals of this Project to create a model of impairment-disability committed to the inherent value of human difference, and of equal access to social, cultural and material goods to create a model that enables us to recognize, map, and analyze disability oppression in diverse cultures to develop our model incorporating sociopolitical, cultural, ecological, and existential- phenomenological theories of impairment- disability to create a processual, temporal, spatial, and contextual model of impairment-disability

3 3 Impairment Disability Why the hyphen? to problematize anthropologists prior use of these terms to highlight the processual nature of the relationship between these and other terms in our model to stress the need for analytical specificity within this process

4 4 Review and Critique of Models and Theories of Impairment-Disability

5 5 SOCIOPOLITICAL DISABILITY MODELS Independent Living Model (De Jong) states that current sociopolitical structures produce access barriers for and dependency in impaired people resulting in disability is based on a consumer driven movement that fosters autonomy, self-help and the removal of societal barriers and disincentives Minority Group Model (Hahn) describes how current sociopolitical structures produce access barriers for and discrimination against impaired people resulting in disability is motivated by a political and research strategy used to counter discrimination and advocate for civil rights British Social Model (Oliver) sees the historical convergence of industrialization and capitalism as restricting impaired peoples access to material and social goods, which results in their economic dependency and creates the category of disability is motivated by a political and research strategy used to combat socioeconomic oppression and to transform the material structures that marginalize and devalue the capabilities of impaired people

6 6 Theories of Impairment Disability Postmodern Theory Scott-Hill (Corker) and Shakespeare see disability as constructed via discursive practices add a discursive theory of communication to the current materialistic focus on structure perceives disability identity as fluid and its boundaries dependent on context and the dynamic interaction of other self-identities emphasizes a dialogic relation between impairment and disability (not an analytical privileging of one over the other)

7 7 THEORIES OF DISABILITY …continued Phenomenological Theories Hughes and Paterson sees disability as the embodiment of negative cultural perceptions and attitudes perceive impairment as socioculturally constructed posit that the non-disabled structure of embodied contexts of meaning creates disabled peoples social dys-appearance advocate for a cultural-phenomenological restructuring of carnal contexts of meaning along more inclusive lines Shuttleworth posits that embodied sensitivities to certain social situations reveal disability oppression analyzes lived metaphors of embodiment (i.e blocked, trapped) as felt remembrances of past disability oppression/empowerment

8 8 THEORIES OF DISABILITY …continued Ecological Contextual Community Based Theories Seekins perceives impairment as situational and contextually constructed sees disability as a response to environmental systems and pressures advocates for community development strategies to restructure disabling barriers to access and increased participation Kasnitz analyzes systemic and situational ethno-embodiment perceives impairment as one culturally constructed resolution to the tension of embodied anomaly posits that disability and handicap are unique systemic constructions of differential access throughout the life course and in valued cultural domains

9 9 Anthropology

10 10 ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO IMPAIRMENT DISABILITY Social Complexity Theory (Scheer and Gross) states that in modern complex societies visible impairments are commonly thought to classify individual identities in small scale societies visible impairments are less important in classifying individuals Stigma Theory (Goffman) sees impairments as representing one kind of undesired difference from social expectations that are discrediting (the stigmatization process) perceives disability as a sociocultural construction Liminality Theory (Turner, Murphy, et. al.) looks at ritual process that separates and then reintegrates individuals into the social fabric after a period of liminality (betwixt and between) sees disability as a social suspension, a liminal state frozen in time Anomaly Theory (Douglas) looks at phenomena that fall in between cultural categories and create cultural tension and dissonance is often used in conjunction with liminality theory to explain the marginality of disabled people

11 11 ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO IMPAIRMENT DISABILITY Phenomenology (Frank) focuses on the disabled persons body image concedes the other is unknowable Personhood (Ingstad and Whyte) focuses on what the constituent features of personhood (valued adult social statuses) are in a society asks, to what extent are disabled people accorded these features? Disablement Process (Luborsky) sees disability as a process primarily defined by a loss of personhood Semiotics (Stiker) focuses on the degree of and types of integration-exclusion of disabled people played out on several cultural levels: biological, social, medical, ethical, religious, etc.

12 12 Research on impairment disability: is problematic because most studies have been conducted in North America often focuses on single impairments with no attempts at cross-impairment analysis within a society or between societies is only beginning to develop taxonomies of what are perceived to be impairments in different societies, and which impairments are disabling and why does not provide ethnographic description of the full range of human interactions occurring in valued and changing contexts/domains of everyday life often overlooks important understudied impairment-disability variables such as hide-ability, predictability, availability of accommodations, social acceptability of disabilities, etc. CRITIQUE OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY AND RESEARCH ON DISABILITY

13 13 CRITIQUE OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY AND RESEARCH ON DISABILITY ….continued Research on impairment-disability: often over generalizes across the life-course from the perspective of one age group to others is terminologically imprecise is parochial and does not engage disability studies literature subscribes to a radical relativistic approach and minimally analyzes relations of power in general is undertheorized

14 14 Sociocultural Model of Impairment Disability

15 15 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Perceptual-Conceptual Layers Posit Bio-Physics

16 16 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Perceptual-Conceptual Layers Ethnoscience Posit Bio-Physics

17 17 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Perceptual-Conceptual Layers Ethnoscience Posit Bio-Physics Ethno-Embodiment

18 18 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Perceptual-Conceptual Layers Ethnoscience Posit Bio-Physics Ethno-Embodiment Embodied Anomaly

19 19 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Experiential Ethnoscience Posit Bio-Physics Ethno-Embodiment Embodied Anomaly Impairment

20 20 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Experiential Ethnoscience Posit Bio-Physics Ethno-Embodiment Embodied Anomaly Impairment Disability

21 21 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Experiential Ethnoscience Posit Bio-Physics Ethno-Embodiment Embodied Anomaly Impairment Disability Handicap

22 22 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability Impairment Ethnoscience Ethno-Embodiment Impairment Disability Handicap Chronic Illness Posit Bio-Physics Embodied Anomaly

23 23 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Embodied Political Layers Ethnoscience Ethno-Embodiment Chronic Illness Posit Bio-Physics Impairment Disability Handicap Embodied Anomaly

24 24 Access Barriers Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Embodied Political Layers Access Participation Barriers

25 25 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Embodied Political Layers Ethnoscience Ethno-Embodiment Impairment Disability Handicap Chronic Illness Posit Bio-Physics Access Barriers Embodied Anomaly

26 26 A FIELDWORK MAP: Sample Valued Cultural Domains Ritual and Spiritual Life

27 27 A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion

28 28 A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion BeliefPractice Denominational Nondenominational MeaningForm Structured Unstructured

29 29 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains

30 30 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains

31 31 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains ContentFormat Formal Informal MeaningForm Structured Unstructured

32 32 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training Family and Household Life A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains

33 33 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training Family and Household Life A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains

34 34 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training Family and Household Life A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains OrientationProcreation Public Intimate MeaningForm Structured Unstructured

35 35 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training Family and Household Life Economic Activities A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains

36 36 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training Family and Household Life Economic Activities A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains

37 37 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training Family and Household Life A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains Reality Earning Assets Expectations Economic Activities

38 38 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training Family and Household Life Economic Activities Political Life A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains

39 39 Ritual and Spiritual Life Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Education and Training Family and Household Life Economic Activities Political Life A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains

40 40 A FIELDWORK MAP: Sample Valued Cultural Domains Ritual and Spiritual Life Education and Training Family and Household Life Economic Activities Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion PolicyOffice Structured Unstructured Political Life

41 41 Ritual and Spiritual Life Education and Training Family and Household Life Economic Activities Political Life Sexuality Communication Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion Economic Activities A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains

42 42 A FIELDWORK MAP: Sample Valued Cultural Domains Ritual and Spiritual Life Education and Training Family and Household Life Economic Activities Political Life Sexuality Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion MeaningForm Structured Unstructured Communication

43 43 Family and Household Life Political Life Economic Activities Education and Training Ritual and Spiritual Life Sexuality: Sexual Access Communication: Communication Image A FIELDWORK MAP: Access and Exclusion in Sample Valued Cultural Domains Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion

44 44 A FIELDWORK MAP: Mapping Embodied Access Exclusion Family and Household Life Political Life Economic Activities Education and Training Ritual and Spiritual Life Sexuality Communication Axis of Access Exclusion Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion

45 45 A FIELDWORK MAP: Sample Valued Cultural Domains Ritual and Spiritual Life Education and Training Family and Household Life Economic Activities Political Life Sexuality Communication Emic/Etic Negotiated Disability Threshold Access Barriers and Experience of Exclusion

46 46 Individual Approach

47 47 Life Course Event History Model Time Status or Role 1 Transformation 1 Status or Role 2 Transformation 2 Status or Role 3 Status or Role 4 Transformation 3 Events

48 48 b Experience of Disability Historical Context Devvas Life Course Trajectory 1950 Birth 1960 Adolescence 1970 Graduate School Career 2000 Aging Access Participation Barriers Threshold Ritual and Spiritual Life Education and Training Family and Household Life Economic Activities Political Life Communication Sexuality Impairment Participation Barrier Domains:

49 49 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Embodied Political Layers Oppression Discrimination Segregation Exclusion Marginalization Inclusionary Access Strategies Access Participation Barriers Exclusionary Access Strategies

50 50 Cross-Cultural Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability: The Structural-Instrumental Impairment Ethno-Embodiment Disability Handicap Chronic Illness Posit Bio-Physics Exclusionary Access Strategies Inclusionary Access Strategies Rules Access Barriers Ethnoscience Embodied Anomaly

51 51 Sociocultural Model of Impairment-Disability in the USA The Structural-Instrumental Ethno-Embodiment Disability Handicap Chronic Illness Posit Bio-Physics Policy Access Barriers Ethnoscience Inclusionary Access Strategies Accommodation Functional Impairment Embodied Anomaly Compensation Exclusionary Access Strategies

52 52 Devva on Fieldwork: Our Fieldwork Map could also be used in literature, history, and even in technology. It provides concrete places to start data collection that can help negotiate hidden and stated researcher bias without the DISappearance of disability that occurs in a radical relativistic approach or in a DISmodernism universalizing approach. Russ on Epistemology and Theoretical Development: In this working model we want to engage our colleagues in a true interdisciplinary approach not constrained by different epistemological validities. We want to celebrate the complexity of concepts of impairment- disability because therein lie there staying power. Closing


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