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JEONG-KI KAM, Ph.D. Prof., Kyungnam University, South Korea Visiting Researcher, University of Leeds

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Presentation on theme: "JEONG-KI KAM, Ph.D. Prof., Kyungnam University, South Korea Visiting Researcher, University of Leeds"— Presentation transcript:

1 JEONG-KI KAM, Ph.D. Prof., Kyungnam University, South Korea Visiting Researcher, University of Leeds

2 Disablism ? Similar Concepts ? Attributes of Discrimination Process to Conceptualize AD Implications CONTENTS Why Ambivalence ? Where Was the Idea from ? Constructs of Attitude Conceptual Structure of AD Discussion

3 - - An abbreviated expression of 'discriminatory attitude against the people with disabilities' - - An abbreviated expression of 'discriminatory attitude against the people with disabilities' cf. sexism, ageism, racism, ableism, etc. - - Discriminatory, oppressive or abusive behavior arising from the belief that disabled people are inferior to others. (Miller et al., 2004; Mark Deal, 2007) - - Discriminatory, oppressive or abusive behavior arising from the belief that disabled people are inferior to others. (Miller et al., 2004; Mark Deal, 2007) Disablism ?

4 - complexity of attitudes - - possibility of distortion of attitudes toward disability or the disabled touchiness of disability issues legal prohibition of overt discriminatory behaviors improvement of general consciousness and morality - - possibility of distortion of attitudes toward disability or the disabled touchiness of disability issues legal prohibition of overt discriminatory behaviors improvement of general consciousness and morality Why Ambivalence? : general background

5 Aversive Disablism (Mark Deal, 2007) Covert, Subtle, or Unintentional Discrimination Covert, Subtle, or Unintentional Discrimination Indirect Discrimination Similar Concepts?

6 "Hostile sexism": involves negative feelings toward women. "Hostile sexism": involves negative feelings toward women. "Benevolent sexism": a knight-in-shining armor ideology that offers protection and affection to women who conform to traditional gender roles. (e.g., cute girlfriend, obedient wife, etc.) "Benevolent sexism": a knight-in-shining armor ideology that offers protection and affection to women who conform to traditional gender roles. (e.g., cute girlfriend, obedient wife, etc.) Where Was the Idea from? Ambivalent Sexism

7 Origin: prejudice, bias, misunderstanding, etc. Features: segregation, hate, contempt, less favorable treatment, ruling, etc. Features: segregation, hate, contempt, less favorable treatment, ruling, etc. Results: disadvantage, social exclusion, inequality, dehumanization, limitation of rights, etc. Results: disadvantage, social exclusion, inequality, dehumanization, limitation of rights, etc. Attributes of Discrimination

8 Cognitive Aspect: belief or perceptual reactions Cognitive Aspect: belief or perceptual reactions Affective Aspect: feeling or psychological reactions Affective Aspect: feeling or psychological reactions Behavioral Aspect: behavioral intention or concrete behavior Behavioral Aspect: behavioral intention or concrete behavior Constructs of Attitude

9 Literature review Defining key concepts at the abstract level Specialists review of the statements 105 statements Specialists review of the statements 105 statements Process to Conceptualize AD - 1 Gathering general statements explaining attitudes toward the people with disabilities 305 statements Gathering general statements explaining attitudes toward the people with disabilities 305 statements

10 A priori categorization of disablism Pretest 1 factor analysis and readjustment 64 statements Pretest 1 factor analysis and readjustment 64 statements Main test factor analysis, reliability test, validity test 2 realms, 3 categories, 6 sub-concepts, 35 statements Main test factor analysis, reliability test, validity test 2 realms, 3 categories, 6 sub-concepts, 35 statements Process to Conceptualize AD - 2 Pretest 2 factor analysis and readjustment 46 statements Pretest 2 factor analysis and readjustment 46 statements

11 Conceptual Structure of AD CATEGORIES REALMS DegradationSegregation Dominance Hostile Discrim. despising exclusive segregation necessitarian dominance Benevolent Discrim. pity protective segregation paternalistic dominance

12 Category 1 - Degradation DEFINITION The attitude to consider the people with disabilities as inferior to those without disabilities and to devaluate them.

13 Category 2 - Segregation DEFINITION The attitude to avoid, separate or set apart the people with disabilities from the mainstream society on account that they are different from those without disabilities

14 Category 3 - Dominance DEFINITION The attitude that rationalizes the superior or ruling status of the people without or ruling status of the people without disabilities with the excuse that those with disabilities with the excuse that those with disabilities, who have only limited ability, disabilities, who have only limited ability, can hardly live independently can hardly live independently

15 Hostile Degradation - Despising DEFINITION The attitude to see the disabled as humble, valueless, and even abnormal. EXAMPLE Persons with disabilities are hard to please. Persons with disabilities have poor judgment.

16 Benevolent Degradation - Pity DEFINITION The attitude to account the disabled to be the objects of compassion or mercy not as equal people. EXAMPLE I cannot help feeling sore when I come in contact with a story of a poor disabled person's life. I feel sorry for the persons with disabilities when I meet them by chance.

17 Hos. Segregation – Exclusive Seg. DEFINITION The attitude to exclude the disabled from the mainstream society or not to accept them to be integrated into the society EXAMPLE I feel uncomfortable when I come across a person with disability. I come to be nervous when I am with a person with disability for a while.

18 Ben. Segregation – Protective Seg. DEFINITION The attitude to rationalize the segregation of the disabled by reason that they need to be protected from the harsh society. EXAMPLE The disabled persons might not feel easy when they are with the non-disabled ones. The disabled student might be placed at a disadvantaged position when he/she gets together with the non-disabled ones.

19 Hos. Dominance – Necessitarian Dom. DEFINITION: The attitude to justify disadvantaging the disabled considering them to be burdens rather than contributors to the society. According to this attitude, it is undesirable to provide for the disabled generously, because this may aggravate their dependency. EXAMPLE "It is inevitable for the disabled with limited economic capacity to be poor." It is excessive for society to care for enhancing the living conditions of the disabled to details.

20 Ben. Dominance – Paternalistic Dom. DEFINITION: The attitude to see that the disabled, as inferior to the non-disabled, need warmhearted care by society. It contains covert expectation that this kind of care, as a result, might contribute to the interests of the non-disabled. EXAMPLE It's natural for a healthy person to do a favor for the disabled one. The disabled people deserve societal care, because they are fragile.

21 Theoretical implications : The concept might broaden the horizon of understanding about the substance of disablism by providing us with more affluent insight Theoretical implications : The concept might broaden the horizon of understanding about the substance of disablism by providing us with more affluent insight Implications Practical implications : The concept might contribute to removing disabilsm that cannot be dealt with legally by giving us more ideas about what should be changed Practical implications : The concept might contribute to removing disabilsm that cannot be dealt with legally by giving us more ideas about what should be changed

22 Is the idea/concept of Ambivalent Disablism acceptable and applicable? Is the idea/concept of Ambivalent Disablism acceptable and applicable? Is it reasonable to acknowledge the sub-concepts of Benevolent Discrimination as discrimination? Is it reasonable to acknowledge the sub-concepts of Benevolent Discrimination as discrimination? Is there any other point which needs to be considered in addition? Is there any other point which needs to be considered in addition? Discussion Is there any sub-concept which needs to be revised or renamed? Is there any sub-concept which needs to be revised or renamed?


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