Presentation on theme: "Appraisal Emotional Adjectives in English/Arabic Translation:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Appraisal Emotional Adjectives in English/Arabic Translation: A Corpus LinguisticApproachSalma MansourLeeds University
2 Overview Dictionaries: a serious problem Powerful/less adjectives in English and ArabicCorpus analysisResults
3 Dictionaries Vs. Corpora Printed dictionarieslimited by spaceinformation is always partialinterpreted (sometimes wrongly)internally inconsistent and contradict each otherout of date
4 “There are many facts about language that cannot be discovered by just thinking about it, or even reading and listening very intently” (Sinclair, 1995) “ As language teachers and professionals, we often have strong intuitions about language use…corpus-based research, however, shows us that our intuitions are often completely wrong” (Biber, 2005)
5 Emotions: In/security (the boy was anxious/confident) Dis/satisfaction (the boy was fed up/ absorbed)Un/happiness (the boy was sad/happy)(Martin and White, 2005: 46-9; Bednarek 2008:15)
6 Powerful/less adjectives in English and Arabic Strong qawi قويPowerful jabar جبارTough qas قاسWeak da‘if ضعيفPowerless wahin واهنTender raqiq رقيق
9 Examples: weak AMMD 2007 EMD 2008 LASD 1994 COED 2010 WCD 2002 ضعيف العقلda‘if al‘aql(mentally weak)ضعيف – غير قوي(weak, not strong)Not strong in characterLacking physical strength and energyLacking power or strength
10 BNC LLS I-EN physically weak 18.18 hand 13.80 heart 15.81 pulse 12.99 stomach11.7111.79chest8.97muscle11.708.90leg8.20ankle7.09knee7.39chin6.957.30Leg4.40body3.02eye1.12The LL score of 'mentally weak' in BNC is (0.64) and in I-EN is (0.49). Similarly, the LLS of ‘weak mind’ in BNC is (1.58) and in I-EN is (4.37).
12 Top 10 collocates of weak in BNC and I-EN LLSI-ENsyllable87.51spot133.2886.21link107.0480.91point99.5457.05economy58.50interaction56.71signal47.15position39.28tie40.82overlap36.62acid33.38smile34.19argument30.72nuclear30.81immune23.11form28.0718.65LLS of ‘weak syllable’ in I-EN is (1.87)
13 Examples: strong AMMD 2007 EMD 2008 LASD 1994 COED 2010 WCD 2002 قوي – شديد – ضخمقوي – شديد – متينHaving a degree of power, esp. of the bodyPhysically powerfulPhysically or mentally powerful
15 LLS of mental, physical, behavioral collocates of strong Appraised/Thing evaluatedBNCI-ENMind3.100.47Arm93.6655.75Character44.1334.84Personality34.8858.54
16 Collocation: a mode of expressing meaning “You shall know a word by the company it keeps” (Firth, 1957: 12).“Looking at lexicographic work on Arabic collocation, a rather bleak picture emerges. There is an extremely limited amount of information on collocation in both monolingual (Arabic) and bilingual (Arabic-English/English-Arabic dictionaries. Besides, no monolingual (Arabic) or bilingual (Arabic-English/English-Arabic) collocational dictionary has been compiled as yet” (Bahumaid, 2006:137).
17 Dictionaries and semantic prosodies “Lexicographers in the past have not been fully aware of the extent of semantic prosody […]modern corpora provide new opportunities of studying the phenomenon” (Partington, 1998: 68).
32 Negative qas (difficult) rajul /man/, waqi‘ /reality/, shay’ /something/(2) Positive qas (No indication)(3) Neutral qas (No indication)
33 رقيق raqiq /tender/ Negative raqiq(weak) ghisha’ /membrane/, jild /skin/Positive raqiq (nice)uslub /style/, shakhs /person/, sawt /voice/, ihsas /feelings/, thawb /garment/shakhs raqiq (nice person)shakhs da‘if/wahin (weak person)If the other two near synonyms /wahin/ and /da’if/can be roughly used as a synonym of negative /raqiq/, they can NEVER be used with the positive /raqiq/ because the meaning will be entirely different, if not contradicting!