Presentation on theme: "Appraisal Emotional Adjectives in English/Arabic Translation:"— Presentation transcript:
1Appraisal Emotional Adjectives in English/Arabic Translation: A Corpus LinguisticApproachSalma MansourLeeds University
2Overview Dictionaries: a serious problem Powerful/less adjectives in English and ArabicCorpus analysisResults
3Dictionaries Vs. Corpora Printed dictionarieslimited by spaceinformation is always partialinterpreted (sometimes wrongly)internally inconsistent and contradict each otherout of date
4“There are many facts about language that cannot be discovered by just thinking about it, or even reading and listening very intently” (Sinclair, 1995) “ As language teachers and professionals, we often have strong intuitions about language use…corpus-based research, however, shows us that our intuitions are often completely wrong” (Biber, 2005)
5Emotions: In/security (the boy was anxious/confident) Dis/satisfaction (the boy was fed up/ absorbed)Un/happiness (the boy was sad/happy)(Martin and White, 2005: 46-9; Bednarek 2008:15)
6Powerful/less adjectives in English and Arabic Strong qawi قويPowerful jabar جبارTough qas قاسWeak da‘if ضعيفPowerless wahin واهنTender raqiq رقيق
9Examples: weak AMMD 2007 EMD 2008 LASD 1994 COED 2010 WCD 2002 ضعيف العقلda‘if al‘aql(mentally weak)ضعيف – غير قوي(weak, not strong)Not strong in characterLacking physical strength and energyLacking power or strength
10BNC LLS I-EN physically weak 18.18 hand 13.80 heart 15.81 pulse 12.99 stomach11.7111.79chest8.97muscle11.708.90leg8.20ankle7.09knee7.39chin6.957.30Leg4.40body3.02eye1.12The LL score of 'mentally weak' in BNC is (0.64) and in I-EN is (0.49). Similarly, the LLS of ‘weak mind’ in BNC is (1.58) and in I-EN is (4.37).
12Top 10 collocates of weak in BNC and I-EN LLSI-ENsyllable87.51spot133.2886.21link107.0480.91point99.5457.05economy58.50interaction56.71signal47.15position39.28tie40.82overlap36.62acid33.38smile34.19argument30.72nuclear30.81immune23.11form28.0718.65LLS of ‘weak syllable’ in I-EN is (1.87)
13Examples: strong AMMD 2007 EMD 2008 LASD 1994 COED 2010 WCD 2002 قوي – شديد – ضخمقوي – شديد – متينHaving a degree of power, esp. of the bodyPhysically powerfulPhysically or mentally powerful
15LLS of mental, physical, behavioral collocates of strong Appraised/Thing evaluatedBNCI-ENMind3.100.47Arm93.6655.75Character44.1334.84Personality34.8858.54
16Collocation: a mode of expressing meaning “You shall know a word by the company it keeps” (Firth, 1957: 12).“Looking at lexicographic work on Arabic collocation, a rather bleak picture emerges. There is an extremely limited amount of information on collocation in both monolingual (Arabic) and bilingual (Arabic-English/English-Arabic dictionaries. Besides, no monolingual (Arabic) or bilingual (Arabic-English/English-Arabic) collocational dictionary has been compiled as yet” (Bahumaid, 2006:137).
17Dictionaries and semantic prosodies “Lexicographers in the past have not been fully aware of the extent of semantic prosody […]modern corpora provide new opportunities of studying the phenomenon” (Partington, 1998: 68).
32Negative qas (difficult) rajul /man/, waqi‘ /reality/, shay’ /something/(2) Positive qas (No indication)(3) Neutral qas (No indication)
33رقيق raqiq /tender/ Negative raqiq(weak) ghisha’ /membrane/, jild /skin/Positive raqiq (nice)uslub /style/, shakhs /person/, sawt /voice/, ihsas /feelings/, thawb /garment/shakhs raqiq (nice person)shakhs da‘if/wahin (weak person)If the other two near synonyms /wahin/ and /da’if/can be roughly used as a synonym of negative /raqiq/, they can NEVER be used with the positive /raqiq/ because the meaning will be entirely different, if not contradicting!