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Appraisal Emotional Adjectives in English/Arabic Translation: A Corpus Linguistic Approach Salma Mansour Leeds University.

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Presentation on theme: "Appraisal Emotional Adjectives in English/Arabic Translation: A Corpus Linguistic Approach Salma Mansour Leeds University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Appraisal Emotional Adjectives in English/Arabic Translation: A Corpus Linguistic Approach Salma Mansour Leeds University

2 Overview Dictionaries: a serious problem Powerful/less adjectives in English and Arabic Corpus analysis Results

3 Dictionaries Vs. Corpora Printed dictionaries limited by space information is always partial interpreted (sometimes wrongly) internally inconsistent and contradict each other out of date

4 There are many facts about language that cannot be discovered by just thinking about it, or even reading and listening very intently (Sinclair, 1995) As language teachers and professionals, we often have strong intuitions about language use…corpus-based research, however, shows us that our intuitions are often completely wrong (Biber, 2005)

5 Emotions: In/security (the boy was anxious/confident) Dis/satisfaction (the boy was fed up/ absorbed) Un/happiness (the boy was sad/happy) (Martin and White, 2005: 46-9; Bednarek 2008:15)

6 Powerful/less adjectives in English and Arabic Strong qaw i قوي Powerful jab a r جبار Tough q a s قاس Weak daif ضعيف Powerless wahin واهن Tender raqiq رقيق

7 ضعيف d a i f tender powerless weak قوي qaw i tough powerful strong

8 Thing evaluated Hinge Evaluative category

9 Examples: weak AMMD 2007 EMD 2008 LASD 1994 COED 2010 WCD 2002 ضعيف العقل da i f alaql (mentally weak) ضعيف – غير قوي (weak, not strong) Not strong in character Lacking physical strength and energy Lacking power or strength

10 BNCLLSI-ENLLS physically weak18.18hand13.80 heart15.81pulse12.99 stomach11.71stomach11.79 chest8.97muscle11.70 muscle8.90leg8.20 ankle7.09knee7.39 chin6.95heart7.30 Leg4.40 body3.02 eye1.12

11 ضعيف / d a i f/ weak I-ARLLS الشخصية al-shakh s yah the personality150 القلب al-qalb the heart140 الساقين al-saqayn the legs75.35 البصر al-ba s ar the eyesight22.44 العقل al-aql the mind1.89

12 Top 10 collocates of weak in BNC and I-EN BNCLLSI-ENLLS syllable87.51spot spot86.21link link80.91point99.54 point57.05economy58.50 interaction56.71signal47.15 position39.28tie40.82 overlap36.62acid33.38 smile34.19argument30.72 nuclear30.81immune23.11 form28.07position18.65

13 Examples: strong AMMD 2007 EMD 2008 LASD 1994 COED 2010 WCD 2002 قوي – شديد – ضخم قوي – شديد – متين Having a degree of power, esp. of the body Physically powerful Physically or mentally powerful

14 Strong physical COED LASD physical mental WCD None! AMMD EMD

15 LLS of mental, physical, behavioral collocates of strong Appraised/Thing evaluated BNCI-EN Mind Arm Character Personality

16 Collocation: a mode of expressing meaning You shall know a word by the company it keeps (Firth, 1957: 12). Looking at lexicographic work on Arabic collocation, a rather bleak picture emerges. There is an extremely limited amount of information on collocation in both monolingual (Arabic) and bilingual (Arabic-English/English-Arabic dictionaries. Besides, no monolingual (Arabic) or bilingual (Arabic-English/English-Arabic) collocational dictionary has been compiled as yet (Bahumaid, 2006:137).

17 Dictionaries and semantic prosodies Lexicographers in the past have not been fully aware of the extent of semantic prosody […]modern corpora provide new opportunities of studying the phenomenon (Partington, 1998: 68).

18 Semantic prosodies Positive Favorable (pleasant) Neutral Neutral (No evidence) Negative Unfavorable (unpleasant)

19 Strong smell AMMD / I-AR Positive aroma perfume Negative drainsgas neutral coffeebrandy BNC negativebad smell رائحة كريهة

20 Node: powerful BNCLLSI-ENLLS tool143.09tool influence136.16force force103.39nation man90.58weapon weapon83.64man86.53 argument57.96influence77.79 body55.52incentive76.15 position45.45message63.50 voice44.83computer57.08 personality24.13way54.29

21 Node: strong BNCLLSI-ENLLS wind433.66feeling feeling352:24support sense326.05sense support178.31evidence position163.77emphasis emphasis151.91wind evidence129.73leadership link125.36commitment opposition122.81supporter argument108.53leader215.36

22 Halliday (1976: 73): Strong (not powerful) tea Powerful (not strong) car

23 powerful vs. strong powerful weapon tool nation force strong feeling support wind sense

24 Powerless vs. weak Powerless collocates with: helpless passive do nothing totally dependent hanging Weak collocates with: syllable spot link point economy smile

25 CollocationJointFreqLL score powerless to powerless against powerless powerless group Powerless in powerless position powerless people powerless and powerless ; powerless as powerless when powerless by


27 tender & tough (a) tender Thing evaluatedEnglishArabic yearinexperienced غير ناضج people, behaviorgentle, nice لطيف - رقيق foodeasy to chew سهل المضغ part of the bodysensitive حساس offergenerous سخي feeling, emotions, loveromantic رومانسي

28 (b) tough Thing evaluatedEnglishArabic timehard أوقات عصيبة peoplerough, stiff قاس – جلف - شكس decision, choice, question, competition difficult صعبة opponentstubborn, obstinate عنيد

29 Same but different!

30 جبار jab a r powerful vs. قوي qaw i strong vs. قاس q a s tough (1) Positive jab a r (great) juhd /effort/, mal /work/, mashru /project/ …God (2) Negative jab a r (stubborn, unfair/unjust) malik /king/, h akim /judge, commander, leader/ (3) Neutral jab a r (No indication)

31 (1) Positive qaw i (strong) far i q /team/, jaysh /army/, iqti sa d /economy/ e.g. iqti sa d qaw i /strong economy/ (not jab a r/ not q a s) (2) Negative qaw i (destructive) zilz a l /earthquake/ (3) Neutral qaw i tath i r /influence/, shakl /form/

32 (1)Negative q a s (difficult) rajul /man/, w a qi /reality/, shay /something/ (2) Positive q a s (No indication) (3) Neutral q a s (No indication)

33 رقيق raq i q /tender/ Negative raqiq(weak) ghish a /membrane/, jild /skin/ Positive raqiq (nice) usl u b /style/, shakh s /person/, sawt /voice/, i h s a s /feelings/, thawb /garment/ shakh s raq i q (nice person) shakh s d a i f/wahin (weak person)

34 Thank you for your attention

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