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Future Comforts: Policy Studies Institute Do you want to control the Temperature? Max Fordham.

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Presentation on theme: "Future Comforts: Policy Studies Institute Do you want to control the Temperature? Max Fordham."— Presentation transcript:

1 Future Comforts: Policy Studies Institute Do you want to control the Temperature? Max Fordham

2 We can provide control of temperature People have preferences Control of temperature uses fossil fuel! But... People are adaptable How much control do we need?

3 1 kW/m 2 Short Wave Radiation from the Sun RADIATION RESPIRATION EVAPORATION 35ºC 25ºC CONVECTION Wet Air Dry Air Heat Exchange of the Body with the Environment

4 BedfordAir temperature & Radiation UK, Early 20 th century WebbEquatorial Comfort Index: Wet bulb temperature= Enthalpy ASHRAEAir temperature, Humidity, Air speed. (Statistics), US, Mid 20 th century Belding & HatchAll Parameters, Simple Physics US, Mid 20 th century Ole FangerAll Parameters ISO Recent. Dusan FialaDevelop Fanger add involuntary reactions. Recent. ASHRAEConsider Voluntary Reactions. Comfort Research Summary

5 Comfort Conditions by Fanger Cold comfort boundary Hot comfort boundary

6 Singapore (28°C, 90% r.H.) Psychrometric Chart Saudi Arabia (46°C, 20% r.H.) Average UK Winter (10°C, 20% r.H.) 10 Room UK Winter (20°C, 10% r.H.) Specific Enthalpy [kJ/kg] Dry Bulb Temperature [°C] Moisture Content [g Water/kg Air] Air leaving Body (35°C, 100% r.H.) 14 Room Condition (25°C, 50% r.H.) Convection Evaporation

7 Otterbourne 30C not enough to open sash windows 43 Gloucester Crescent Is it really 30 C? Hong Kong Teaching 27C 56% RH radiant temp =air temp Light clothes: no adjustment wanted 20 building professionals Anecdotes QED

8 References [1]Fordham S M. Building Physics - Reducing air conditoining needs in extreme climates. CIBSE Conference [2]Climate change and its impact. Meteorological Office, [3]Health & Safety Executive. EH 40/97 Occupational Exposure Limits 1997, Table 2 Page 22. (ISBN ). [4]Total Carbon Cycle (tba). [5]Nuclear Energy - the future climate. The Royal Society and The Royal Academy of Engineering, 1999 (ISBN ). [6]Fanger P O. Olf and decipol: New units for preceived air quality. Building Services Engineering Research & Technology, [7]Fiala D. Dynamische Simulation des menschlichen Wärmehaushalts und der thermischen Behaglichkeit. De Montfort University, [8]Field Studies of Thermal Comfort and Adaption. ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin, Volume 14, Number 1. January 1998.


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