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Precision and thermal comfort Fergus Nicol London Metropolitan University and Oxford Brookes University.

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Presentation on theme: "Precision and thermal comfort Fergus Nicol London Metropolitan University and Oxford Brookes University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Precision and thermal comfort Fergus Nicol London Metropolitan University and Oxford Brookes University

2 Thermal comfort standards From Olesen and Parsons, Energy and Buildings 34(6)

3 Summer in Saidu Sharif, Pakistan (photo M Humpheys)

4 Winter in Saidu Sharif, Pakistan (photo M Humpheys)

5 Changing ourselves As the temperature changes so the level of clothing, the air movement (which can cool the body by convection and/or evaporation of sweat) and the moisture of the skin will change. It is also probable that people are less active in the heat, but because metabolic rate is measured by activity this is not clear

6 Data from Pakistan

7 The result of these actions is shown in this graph of the level of discomfort at different indoor temperatures among office workers in Pakistan Little discomfort Nicol, Raja, Allauddin & Jamy (1999) Energy and Buildings 30(3)

8 Fans are available in almost all Pakistani offices this graph shows the proportion in use a different temperatures

9 A curve of p on T o can then be drawn to show the probability that a control is being used Probability control is in use is given by: p = e (a+bTo) /(1+e (a+bTo) ) a and b are determined by regression analysis

10 Use of fans Details: Nicol, J.F. (2001) 7th international IBPSA conference, Rio

11 Use of windows

12 Use of blinds/curtains

13 From data of Yannick Sutter, ENTPE, Lyons The use of curtains is better related to the external illuminance:

14 Use of heating

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16 OccupantBuilding Comfort is achieved by the occupants adapting to the building Or by the occupants adapting the building to suit them This has to be done within the climatic, social, economic and cultural context of the whole system

17 Cautionary note: Whilst essentially a negative feed-back system aimed at avoiding discomfort, the behaviour resulting from discomfort can lead to a positive feed-back in energy use: Air-conditioning Energy useGlobal warming

18 Occupant simulation Building simulation Comfort is achieved by the occupants adapting to the building Or by the occupants adapting the building to suit them This has to be done within the climatic, social, economic and cultural context of the whole system Empirical results New approaches

19 E.N. – Electricidade do Norte offices, Porto, Portugal

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21 The temperatures were measured during office hours during a thermal comfort survey. It will be noticed that there is a tendency for the indoor temperature to be above the outdoor temperature in cold weather and often below it in warmer weather. There is also structure in the distribution of indoor temperatures at any given outdoor temperature

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37 Comfort and preference How do you feel?How would you prefer to feel? Cold CoolMuch warmer Slightly coolA bit warmer NeutralNo change Slightly warmA bit cooler WarmMuch cooler Hot

38 Most occupants want no change in indoor temperature

39 Mean outdoor temp. The effect of separating the outdoor temperatures

40 Conclusions Comfort is a psychological, not a physiological one Buildings must enable occupants to be comfortable AC is one way to do this but it is expensive in equipment and energy Buildings behave stochastically and not precisely, particularly when occupied Sustainable solutions need risk assessment not comfort prescriptions


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