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How important is the local when thinking global? Internationalisation at a research led university Ian Willis Research Seminar 28 October 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "How important is the local when thinking global? Internationalisation at a research led university Ian Willis Research Seminar 28 October 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 How important is the local when thinking global? Internationalisation at a research led university Ian Willis Research Seminar 28 October 2009

2 Local - key emergent theme Journey – Local was NOT starting place – 2 nd beginning was on rationales, drivers and restrainers for internationalisation University is NW & research led! – Confidential – Major changes underway Internationalisation & globalisation: brief Theoretical focus Local considerations – emerged as a strong theme in analysis

3 Inter-connected Inter-acting Nested Global International (Europe) National University (Departmental) Individual Levels

4 Globalisation – what on earth is it? Globalisation in terms of: Ethnicity Ideas Media Finance Technology Key notions: Flows Global events induce local responses Appadurai 1996

5 Global The existence of global economic, political, cultural and environmental interconnections and flows that make many of the existing borders and boundaries irrelevant Steger 2003 Note: Complex Inter-relations, flows, dynamic Beyond states Economic dimension inescapable but much more going on BUT: states remain very powerful including in education

6 Globalisation and internationalisation Related and interconnected but not the same Internationalisation is one of the responses that HEIs are making through their strategies, policies and activities (UNESCO 2004, Altbach & Knight 2007) Responses will be local, situated and prescribed by the realities of individual HEIs

7 Internationalisation The process of integrating an international, intercultural and/or global dimension into the goals, functions (teaching/learning, research, services) and delivery of higher education (Knight 2005) This is very commonly cited Note: integration

8 Rationales – why bother? RationalesConstituent elements or focus Social and cultural Intercultural understanding, Citizenship, Social and community development EconomicEconomic competitiveness, Labour market, Income generation AcademicInternational dimension to research and teaching, Institution-building, Profile and status, Enhancement of quality and curriculum, Collaborations CompetitiveInternational branding and positioning, Strategic alliances, Knowledge production & exchange DevelopmentalStudent and staff development, Institutional learning and exchange, Capacity building

9 Question: Is it a...... 1.Theoretical framework 2.Conceptual framework 3.Organising framework 4.Plain old framework

10 Force field analysisLewin Social Practice TheoryTrowler Transformative globalisationHeld et al, Tikly, Appadurai Internationalisation rationalesKnight, Middlehurst & Woodfield Glonacal-agency heuristicMarginson & Rhoades Organisational Isomorphism/Allomorphism Vaira Structure/AgencyGiddens, Archer, Bhaskar Philosophy of Higher EducationBarnett

11 Organising the level & complexity Lewins Force field analysis – Driving and restraining forces for change Social Practice Theory: Trowler – Situates change Transformative globalisation – Emphasises local responses to global flows/forces

12 Forces potentially acting to restrain internationalisation Global Rejection of globalisation discourse, credit crunch Institutional Conflicting university agendas and priorities Existing positions and interests Individual Locally based research, commitment to local concerns Questioning of globalisation discourse & marketisation Views on purpose of university Existing positions and interests

13 Forces: potential to drive internationalisation Global Neo-liberal economics, trade agreements New markets, competition, demand Global research, Global challenges ICT, English worldwide, staff & student mobility National policies Economic view of internationalisation Relative reduction in funding ­

14 More Forces: potential to drive Institutional Economic pressure, competition Global University, Reputation (research led) International league tables Existing traditions & international collaborations Educational drive for international dimension Individual International research interests Acceptance of market discourse Existing positions and interests

15 Glonacal-agency heuristic Global - National – Local – All important Agency: looking at how individuals act/influence at all levels Layers and conditions – Changes mediated by local histories and aims Marginson & Rhoades

16 Structure/Agency Argued that each level creates a structure within which level below acts agentially Global forces create context that calls for a university response – Often meaning internationalisation Universitys internationalisation creates context: individual response These responses can in turn influence up

17 Structure/Agency Provides an explanation of how individual interests (projects) are the locus of concern/action Shows agential action can shape structures – Over time Theoretical argument – Why to engage with individual interests – Supported in the findings

18 University / Individual University linking internationalisation aims to individual projects can be a key to successful development Doing it just for the money wont work Need for a nuanced message Monash require any internationalisation activity to explicitly serve an academic function

19 Back to the Framework What is it.........? Theoretical, Conceptual Organising or Plain old? Ask the audience! Does it work OK? Questions/comments Thank you

20 Bonus slides follow

21 How new is it ? Debated – heres one view Four major cycles: 1.1492 - Spain and Portugal colonise S America etc. World (oceanic) trade established 2.Late 17 th Cent – 2nd European colonisation, slave trade, trade gives over to conquest 3.Late 19 th Cent – huge increase in trade, mass migration to Americas. Last colonies fought for. Ends with 1930s depression 4.Post WW2 – trade liberalisation, intensifies 1967 – 1980s Initial gains unequally distributed, but eventually trickle down (?) Greater gains overall to those that globalised. Often caused great suffering Elites have more in common with elites in other countries than with own people

22 National messages & pressures HE as a business is very important to UK economy – Income: ~ £17bn, Economic impact: £42.5bn, – 1.2% of workforce: 330,000 direct (600,000 total impact) Most UK national messages are economic Knowledge economy is accepted Most governments want mass education and spending contained – These are real pressures for HEIs – Leads to mix of public/private income – 61% public, 27% private, 12% export Figures from Universities UK for 2003-4

23 Globalisation: Contested Different views Different assumptions Hyperglobalist: Triumph of global capitalism Demise of nation state Sceptical: Just regionalism Polarisation: developed and developing Nation state now more important in managing crisis in capitalism Education is national Transformational: Interconnectedness; both integration and fragmentation. Some enmeshed in global order others marginalised Relationships cross national boundaries Nations retain power but transformed by ideas of international governance and law 3 broad approaches - each contains plurality of views

24 Globalisation – summary notes Flows, Intensity, Speed Homogenisation & localisation Economics (neo-liberal) as major driver Knowledge Economy, Competition, GATs Education: a product and part of globalising process WW educational (credentialing) system, English, Staff & Student mobility Global challenges Global research collaboration

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