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Professions and Other Organisations Stephen Ackroyd.

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1 Professions and Other Organisations Stephen Ackroyd

2 Professions: a Sideshow? Studies of New Forms of Business Organisation – The Organisation of Business, (Oxford, 2002) and the edited collection Oxford Handbook of Work and Organisation (2005) Comparative Study of the Effects of the new public management (NPM) on the delivery of public services. – Work with Ian Kirkpatrick, The New Managerialism and the Public Service Professions (Palgrave, 2005) and various papers (Organization, Public Admin, etc) Comparative Study of the Organisation of the Professions and New Expert Occupations – Work with Daniel Muzio in Organisation Studies, Journal of Law and Society Organization and forthcoming edited bookRedirections in the Study of Expert Labour (Palgrave, 2007)

3 Classifying the Professions TRADITIONAL / EVOLVED (High Group) MODERN / DESIGNED (Low Group) INFORMAL (Low Grid) FAMILY, COMMUNITY (Egalitarian) NEW ORGS (Individualist - Egalitarian) FORMAL (High Grid) PROFESSIONS (Hierarchical) FORMAL ORGANISATIONS (Fatalist – Hierarchical)

4 NHS Hospitals (Nurses) Social Services DeptsHousing Services (Housing Associations) Reorganisation 1. Single purpose organisation + + +++ (+ + +) 2. Purchaser - provider splits + 3. New systems of accountability and control + + Modes of Implementation 4. Top-down Implementation + + + 5. Early implementation + + +++ 6. Regulatory agencies + + + + 7. Benchmarking & performance indicators + + ++ + I. Comparative Analysis of Reform – in Three Public Services (Kirkpatrick, Ackroyd + Walker, 2005)

5 NHS Hospital Doctors (Nurses) Local Authority Social Workers Housing Managers 1. Continued attachment to professional culture and values (Public service ethos) + + + (+ + +) + + ++ 2. de facto professional control of day to day work practices + (+ +) + 3. Rejection of managerial legitimacy + (+ ) + Professional Closure 4.Internal 5. External + + + (+ +) + + + + + (+ +) + + Importance of Professional Organisation in Three Public Services (Kirkpatrick, Ackroyd and Walker, 2005)

6 Co-operation and Conflict: Managerialisation and Professionalisation 6. Occupational Project II: subordination of independent sources of skill and independent knowledge 4. Group Agency II: Development of a managerial cadre 5. Organisational Mobilisation II : Routinsation of administration / bureaucratisation 6. Organisational Project II: Profession infiltrates and develops de facto control of employing organisation 4. Group Agency II: profession develops credentials and monopoly of supply 5. Occupational Mobilisation II: Profession develops its occupational association + consolidates professional identity

7 II. Comparative Analysis of Expert Occupations: Doctors, Lawyers & Management Consultants Why are expert occupations differently organised? Why has there been no major profession formed in the 20 th Century? How can we understand the differences of organisation of lawyers, medical doctors ad management consultants?

8 Three Types of Expert Occupations I

9 Three Types of Expert Occupation II

10 McKennas Analysis of the Status Trade off for Expert Occupations

11 Key points of difference Nothing in the nature of the knowledge argument The way groups have come to derive their status (McKenna) Technology and the development of expertise – management consulting moves towards less training and experience The Formative Context

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