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The Application of Isonymic Analysis to Historical Data: Irish Migration to Britain, 1851-1901 M.T. Smith 1, A.C. Hepburn 2, D.M. MacRaild 3 1 Dept. of.

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Presentation on theme: "The Application of Isonymic Analysis to Historical Data: Irish Migration to Britain, 1851-1901 M.T. Smith 1, A.C. Hepburn 2, D.M. MacRaild 3 1 Dept. of."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Application of Isonymic Analysis to Historical Data: Irish Migration to Britain, M.T. Smith 1, A.C. Hepburn 2, D.M. MacRaild 3 1 Dept. of Anthropology, University of Durham, UK 2 School of Arts, Design, Media and Culture, University of Sunderland, UK 3 School of Humanities, University of Northumbria, UK

2 Overview An introduction to isonymy Illustrative Case studies –Surnames and occupation –Surnames and religion –Spatial distribution of surnames Irish migration to Northern England –Population structure of Ireland –Population structure of Irish in England

3 Isonymy Methods G H Darwin (1875) Marital Isonymy (Crow and Mange, 1965) Random Isonymy (Morton 1973, Lasker 1977, Relethford 1988) Isonymy treats surnames as if they were strictly inherited, like genes. Because they are passed in the male line, surnames behave like genes on the Y chromosome. Assumption that all bearers of a surname are descended from a shared common ancestor – this assumption is often untrue

4 Darwin pedigree Erasmus Darwin Elizabeth Pole Mary Howard Robert Waring Darwin FrancesSamuel Galton Francis Galton Josiah Wedgwood Sarah Wedgwood SusannahJosiah IIJohn John Bartlett Allen Elizabeth Hensleigh ElizabethJaneCatherine Caroline SarahCharlesJosiah IIIEmmaHenryJessie Hensleigh James Macintosh Frances George HowardFrancis Horace Charles Galton Richard Darwin Keynes Horace Basil Barlow

5 Y-chromosome inheritance The pattern of surname transmission in England and many other countries, mimics the inheritance of the Y chromosome

6 Introduction to isonymy through North Yorkshire coastal parishes Robin Hoods Bay Runswick Staithes Hinderwell

7 In local populations surname frequencies have a characteristic skewed distribution Many more surnames occur only once

8 with a few names repeated several times, and many occurring only once or twice

9 The coefficient of relationship by isonymy R i devised by Gabriel Lasker (1977) is calculated between a pair of populations R i = Σp i A.p i B/2 where p i A is the relative frequency of the ith surname in population A and p i B is the frequency of that surname in population B

10 FILE FYLI HIND RUNS SCARSTAI WHIT FILE FYLI HIND RUNS SCAR STAI WHIT Relationships by isonymy between pairs of places, North Yorkshire Coast,1851

11 FILE FYLI HIND RUNS SCARSTAI WHIT FILE FYLI HIND RUNS SCAR STAI WHIT Relationships by isonymy between pairs of places, North Yorkshire Coast,1851 Staithes and Runswick – next door neighbours but without much in common

12 FILE FYLI HIND RUNS SCARSTAI WHIT FILE FYLI HIND RUNS SCAR STAI WHIT Relationships by isonymy between pairs of places, North Yorkshire Coast,1851 Staithes and Runswick – next door neighbours but without much in common data matrix is difficult to make sense of

13 Map of relationships between pairs of places, North Yorkshire Coast,1851 done using SPSS Alscal procedure

14 Case Studies Selsey, Sussex –gives a feel for the method Fylingdales, North Yorkshire –occupation and surnames Ards Peninsula, County Down –Geographical distance and surnames, also settlement history, religion and occupation Origins of 19 C Irish migrants to Britain –a substantive research question posed by historians

15 Selsey Peninsula, West Sussex Occupational groups include farmers, agricultural labourers, fishermen, others (tradesmen, craftsmen, and professionals) and coastguards Coastguards were short-term postings, usually of outsiders, foreigners in the eyes of the local community

16 Relationship by isonymy between occupational groups, Selsey , all years combined farmers ag labs fishermen others coastguards

17 Relationship by isonymy between occupational groups, Selsey , each year separate farmers ag labs fishermen others coastguards

18 Relationship by isonymy between occupational groups, Selsey , tracing change through time farmers ag labs fishermen others coastguards

19 Relationship by isonymy between occupational groups, Fylingdales , tracing change through time ag labs shipowners mariners others farmers fishermen

20 The Ards Peninsula, Co. Down This example shows the influence of distance, settlement history, religious persuasion and occupation on surname distributions The Ards was settled in the 12 C by Anglo-Normans led by Hugh de Courcy 17 C plantation by English and in particular Scots Presbyterian settlers in the north of the peninsula

21 Scrabo Tower, Ards Peninsula

22 Ards Peninsula: relationship by isonymy, marriage registers, Roman Catholic Episcopalian Presbyterian

23 Population structure of Ards Peninsula Surnames reflect settlement history, geographical distance and religion Why is Portavogie different?

24 Population structure of Ards Peninsula Surnames reflect settlement history, geographical distance and religion Why is Portavogie different? Portavogie was a fishing village, with continuing links to the Scottish coast

25 Population structure of Ards Peninsula Why is Portavogie different? Portavogie was a fishing village, with continuing links to the Scottish coast Little or no emigration or immigration has taken place … Surnames are scare; Palmers can be counted by the score; Adairs, Mahoods, Cullys, Hughes, and Coffeys by the dozen: a fact to some extent accounted for by the tendency to intermarry. The young men seldom venture outside the limits of the village in their search for a wife; hence a strong family likeness prevails … (Belfast News Letter 26 October 1885 Portavogie and its Fishermen)

26 North Yorkshire coast Population structure partly determined by isolation-by-distance Maritime communities more stable than land-based communities Maritime communities more isolated from each other

27 R5 R8R8 St5 St8 Sc5 Sc8 Fi5 Fi8 H8 H5 W5 W8 Fy8 Fy5 Isonymic relationships between North Yorkshire coastal populations,

28 The Irish in Britain, 1881: where are they from?

29 The origins of Irish migrants to northern England (1) Population structure of Ireland in the mid nineteenth century (2) Population structure of Irish- born migrants to northern England at the 1881 Census

30 Population structure of Ireland in the mid nineteenth century Study Aims Elucidate the historical population structure of Ireland by isonymy –Is isonymy between populations consistent with geographical distance? –Do administrative divisions constrain surname distributions?

31 Griffiths Valuation as a source of Irish historical demographic data No 19 th Century censuses survive Griffiths Valuation –Index of tenants, i.e. household heads for every property –Problem with tenants having more than one property –Sampled only one forename/surname combination per parish

32 Random 10% sample from each county Sampled to minimise tenancy duplication problem Method gave 84,100 named individuals for analysis Resulting matrix of relationships between counties displayed as a 2-D map by MDS Griffiths Valuation national sample

33 MDS plot of isonymic relationships between counties R 2 =.922

34 MDS plot of isonymic relationships between counties Surname distributions between counties closely matched to geography –Between Provinces –Within Provinces Why are Munster counties so close and Ulster counties so dispersed? –Settlement differences, Ulster Plantation, demic expansion in Munster

35 Do administrative boundaries constrain surname distributions? 1.Between-county vs within-county contiguous parish pairs for ancient province of Ulster Hypothesis that relationship within counties will be greater than relationship across county boundaries Mean R within counties = Mean R between counties = One tail T-test, p = Parish Transect

36 MDS plot of isonymic relationship between transect parishes Parish transect R 2 =.440

37 Conclusions Isonymy consistent with isolation by distance country-wide Some evidence that administrative boundaries – county and provincial – may constrain surname distributions Distribution of Norse-derived surnames does not help explain earlier studies of population structure

38 Irish migrants to Northern England in the late nineteenth century Study Aims Explore the population structure of Irish migrant communities in northern England by isonymy –Did Irish and English control populations show isolation by distance or other relationships to geography? –What caused Irish populations in England to be geographically structured?

39 Data Sources and Samples 1881 Census of England and Wales* Cumberland, Co. Durham, Northumberland Isonymy sampling – Irish-born male heads of household, male boarders and male lodgers – 33,625 English controls, equivalent, born in residing parish or adjacent parishes – 29,630 Limited information on county of birth of Irish will be used to interpret findings *Enhanced version of LDS transcription from AHDS History

40 Criteria for parish selection: Represent each County Isonymy sample must be >100 Parishes included in isonymy analysis

41 Isonymy by distance, 1881 Census

42 MDS plot of isonymy between English control samples, 1881 Census RSQ = Carlise 2 Cleator 3 Cockermouth 4 Crosscanonby 5 Dearham 6 Egremont 7 Harrington 8 Millom 9 Preston Quarter 10 Whitehaven 11 Wigton 12 Workington 13 Benfieldside 14 Birtley 15 Bishop Auckland 16 Bishopwearmouth 17 Conside & Knitsley 18 Crook &Billy Row 19 Darlington 20 Dawdon 21 Durham 22 Gateshead 23 Hartlepool 24 Jarrow 25 Hetton-Le-Hole 26 Heworth 27 Houghton-Le -Spring 28 South Shields 29 Southwick 30 Stockton- On-Tees 31 Sunderland 32 Tanfield 33 Westoe 34 Wingate 35 Winlaton 36 Witton Gilbert 37 Wolsingham 38 Alnwick 39 Bedlington 40 Hexham 41 Longbenton 42 Morpeth 43 Newcastle All Sts 44 Newcastle St Andrew 45 North Shields 46 Tynemouth 47 Wallsend 48 Westgate

43 MDS plot of isonymy between Irish samples, 1881 Census RSQ = Carlise 2 Cleator 3 Cockermouth 4 Crosscanonby 5 Dearham 6 Egremont 7 Harrington 8 Millom 9 Preston Quarter 10 Whitehaven 11 Wigton 12 Workington 13 Benfieldside 14 Birtley 15 Bishop Auckland 16 Bishopwearmouth 17 Conside & Knitsley 18 Crook &Billy Row 19 Darlington 20 Dawdon 21 Durham 22 Gateshead 23 Hartlepool 24 Jarrow 25 Hetton-Le-Hole 26 Heworth 27 Houghton-Le -Spring 28 South Shields 29 Southwick 30 Stockton- On-Tees 31 Sunderland 32 Tanfield 33 Westoe 34 Wingate 35 Winlaton 36 Witton Gilbert 37 Wolsingham 38 Alnwick 39 Bedlington 40 Hexham 41 Longbenton 42 Morpeth 43 Newcastle All Sts 44 Newcastle St Andrew 45 North Shields 46 Tynemouth 47 Wallsend 48 Westgate

44 Factors influencing settlement Transport routes

45 Factors influencing settlement Transport routes Chain migration

46 Factors influencing settlement Transport routes Chain migration Family-based

47 Factors influencing settlement Transport routes Chain migration Family-based Community-based

48 Factors influencing settlement Transport routes Chain migration Family-based Community-based Sectarian issues

49 Factors influencing settlement Transport routes Chain migration Family-based Community-based Sectarian issues Protestant shipyard workers from Belfast go to Clydeside, then to Tyneside

50 Factors influencing settlement Transport routes Chain migration Family-based Community-based Sectarian issues Protestant shipyard workers from Belfast go to Clydeside, then to Tyneside Roman Catholic Churches, Orange Order and other societies

51 Catalogue Reference:PRO/RAIL 910/1 Shipping routes were a primary determinant of settlement in England

52 Catalogue Reference:PRO/RAIL 910/1 Cumberland and North Lancashire Settlement in North- East England via several routes

53 Catalogue Reference:PRO/RAIL 910/1 Cumberland and North Lancashire Liverpool Settlement in North- East England via several routes

54 Catalogue Reference:PRO/RAIL 910/1 Cumberland and North Lancashire Liverpool Glasgow and Clydeside (shipyard workers) Settlement in North- East England via several routes

55 Catalogue Reference:PRO/RAIL 910/1 Cumberland and North Lancashire Liverpool Glasgow and Clydeside (shipyard workers) South Wales (ironworkers) Settlement in North- East England via several routes

56 We have identified county of birth (c-o-b) for 151,216 Irish-born living in England and Wales at the 1881 Census The number with identifiable birth county is a small proportion of the total e.g. Co Durham 1881 Irish-born 36,527 Isonymy sample 20,307 Known c-o-b 5,705 Irish Origins

57 The relative frequency of Irish from Co. Tyrone is highest around the iron works town of Consett, Co. Durham and in Barrow in Furness, Lancashire Irish Origins

58 In 1881 the highest settlement density of Irish- born from Co. Down is in Cumbria Irish Origins

59 Conclusions Population structure of Irish migrants to England shows little isolation-by-distance. Irish population is geographically structured, consistent with settlement influenced by shipping routes, migration streams, and economic and social-cultural factors. English population structure reflects isolation-by- distance, topography and migration associated with recent industrial development.

60 Acknowledgements This paper comes out of a wider study entitled Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council The Application of Isonymic Analysis to Historical Data: Irish Migration to Britain, M.T. Smith, A.C. Hepburn, D.M. MacRaild


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