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1 Chapter 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction MRS. Shefa EL Sagga. 9/2/2011 OB.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction MRS. Shefa EL Sagga. 9/2/2011 OB."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction MRS. Shefa EL Sagga. 9/2/2011 OB

2 2 Learning Objectives  Contrast the three components of an attitude. Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Compare and contrast the major job attitudes. Define job satisfaction and show how it can be measured. Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction. Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction. Show whether job satisfaction is a relevant concept in countries other than the United States. 9/2/2011 OB

3 3 Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. The Components of Attitudes Cognitive Component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. Evaluation Feeling Action 9/2/2011 OB

4 4 Does Behavior Always Follow From Attitudes? Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. It is inconsistent attitude behavior relationship. Inconsistency creates uncomfortable situation. To deal with uncomfortable situation people seek consistency to reduce cognitive dissonance. They can do that by moderating variables. 9/2/2011 OB

5 5 Does Behavior Always Follow From Attitudes? Moderating Variables The most powerful moderators of the attitude-behavior relationship are: Importance of the attitude. Correspondence to behavior. Accessibility. Existence of social pressures. Personal and direct experience of the attitude. Attitude Predict Behavior 9/2/2011 OB

6 6 Major Job Attitudes Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics Job Involvement Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth. Psychological Empowerment Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy. 9/2/2011 OB

7 7 Major Job Attitudes Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization. Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. Employee Engagement The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job. 1.Affective (emotional attachment to organization). 2.Continuance Commitment (economic value of staying). 3.Normative (moral or ethical obligations).  Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees.  Less important now than in past – now perhaps more of occupational commitment, loyalty to profession rather than a given employer. 9/2/2011 OB

8 8 Are Job Attitudes Distinct? No: these attitudes are highly related. Variables may be redundant (measuring the same thing under a different name) While there is some distinction, there is also a lot of overlap. 9/2/2011 OB Be patient, OB researchers are working on it!

9 9 Job Satisfaction How to Measure Job Satisfaction? Single global rating (one question / one answer) Summation score (many questions / one average) Best OK Are People Satisfied in their Jobs?. Results depend on how job satisfaction is measured. Pay and promotion are the most problematic elements. 9/2/2011 OB

10 10 Job Satisfaction What Causes Job Satisfaction?. Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. Personality can influence job satisfaction. Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs. People with positive core self evaluation (Bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competences, and worth as a person). 9/2/2011 OB

11 11 Job Satisfaction Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction Exit Behavior directed toward leaving the organizationBehavior directed toward leaving the organizationVoice Active and constructive attempts to improve conditionsActive and constructive attempts to improve conditions Neglect Allowing conditions to worsenAllowing conditions to worsenLoyalty Passively waiting for conditions to improvePassively waiting for conditions to improve Active Passive Constructive Destructive 9/2/2011 OB

12 12 Job Satisfaction Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Job Performance Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Customer Satisfaction  Satisfied workers are more productive & more productive workers are more satisfied!.  The causality may run both ways.  Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness.  Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. 9/2/2011 OB

13 13 Job Satisfaction Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Absenteeism Turnover Workplace Deviance Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work. Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Many moderating variables in this relationship:  Economic environment and tenure.  Organizational actions taken to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize, abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw. 9/2/2011 OB

14 14 Job Satisfaction Managers Often “Don’t Get It” Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of job satisfaction on the bottom line, most managers are either unconcerned about or overestimate worker satisfaction. 9/2/2011 OB

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