Presentation on theme: "Yaojun Li Institute for Social Change Manchester University Measuring Social Progress -- Labour."— Presentation transcript:
Yaojun Li Institute for Social Change Manchester University Email: Yaojun.Li@Manchester.ac.ukYaojun.Li@Manchester.ac.uk Measuring Social Progress -- Labour Market Position of 1 st and 2 nd Generation Minority Ethnic Groups in Great Britain and the USA (1990/1-2000/1) For presentation at SAR Conference CCSR, Manchester University 2 nd Sept 2008
2 Rationale for the UK US comparison UK: British disease (sclerosis): characterised by class immobility and persistent social inequality (Goldthorpe and Mills, 2004; Goldthorpe and Jackson, 2007, albeit with signs of improvement, Heath and Payne, 2000), but there is officially endorsed ethnic equality for the legal immigrants (managed immigrant incorporation: Heath, 2007) US: The American dream!: fewer class barriers, with affirmative race policies to address past harms but little official immigrant incorporation management: Waters, 2008)
3 Patterns and Trends Persistent ethnic disadvantage, with drag (origin) effects (Darity and Mason, 1998; Borjas, 1987, 2001, 2005) Gradual improvement with hypercyclical effects (Chiswick, 1978; Alba, 2005; Waters and Jimenez, 2005; Li and Heath, 2008) Segmented assimilation (Portes and Zhou, 1993) but does it really hold? Linear assimilation into middle class with White Economic advancement but deliberate preservation of own values and community solidarity Permanent poverty and assimilation into the underclass
6 Data The 1991 2% SARs for Great Britain The 2001 3% SARs for Great Britain The 1990 5% IPUMs for the US The 2000 5% IPUMs for the US
7 Outcome and predictor variables Outcomes: employment and class For men aged 16-64 and women aged 16-59 in Great Britain and the USA Predictors 1.Human capital: education, labour market experience (age in bands and age square in similar vein following SAR2001: 16/19=1 20/24=2 25/29=3 30/44=4 45/59=5 60/64=6) 2.Health and dependent children 3.Generational status (native and overseas born) combined with ethnicity: White, Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani/Bangladeshi, Chinese and Other
20 Main findings More minority groups in Britain and US during the decade Inactivity increased for Chinese, P/B and B Caribbean men in Britain, reduced for P/B women although it still remains a major obstacle for LM participation Inactivity increased for B African and remains a major gaol for P/B women in the US Among the active in Britain, B Caribbean and P/B men, and P/B women are least likely to have access to the salariat, but notable progress In the US B African men and women least likely to be in the salariat, and progress is not less notable Controlling for human capital and health and children, minority groups in Britain are still disadvantaged in gaining access to the labour market and to salariat but there are signs of progress; similar stories in the US Whilst Pakistanis/Bangladeshis in Britain fare quite badly, they do much better in the US, and Black Americans do worse in the US than in Britain, especially in access to the labour market Much more work needs to be done!