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Gender Ratios in Global Migrations, 1850-2000 Data collection funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health Trent Alexander.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender Ratios in Global Migrations, 1850-2000 Data collection funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health Trent Alexander."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender Ratios in Global Migrations, Data collection funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health Trent Alexander Donna Gabaccia Katharine Donato Johanna Leinonen

2 Gender ratios in mass migrations Ravensteins Laws assert that men vastly outnumber women among long-distance movers World history and demography textbooks present this as conventional wisdom about the past Recently, researchers at US-Dept of Labor and UN have suggested a remarkable shift in migrant gender balance has implications for policies re integration (social programs, labor market impact, public assistance, family structure issues) But nobody has any decent data...until now

3 Key questions Migrant gender balance: has there been change over time? Do patterns in migrant gender balance differ for internal migrants as compared to international migrants? Do patterns in migrant gender balance differ for short- distance migrants as compared to long-distance migrants?

4 Methods Use individual-level census data from Minnesota Pop Center IPUMS-USA: 15 censuses from IPUMS-International 29 countries 94 censuses from North Atlantic Population Project: 4 countries 8 censuses from

5 Methods Use information in the datasets to identify... internal migrants international migrants non-migrants Bring in additional geographic information to determine... how far migrants moved whether or not they moved from an adjacent country or region

6 Methods: identifying migrants Coding issuewhich types of borders count? international migrant: any national border-crossing counts internal migrant: only crossing of first-level administrative units counts state, province, department, district, etc. huge numbers of people moved within the boundaries of these areas we do not count them as migrants

7 Methods: adding geographic information How far did migrants move, in kilometers? determined geographic coordinates to all countries and first-level units used the geographic mid-point of each area attached geographic coordinates to our data for place of residence place of birth use geometry to determine distance between place of residence and place of birth

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9 Key question number 1 Migrant gender balance: has there been change over time? YES, clearly.

10 Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files (IPUMS-USA)

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13 Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files (IPUMS-International)

14 Key question number 1, contd Migrant gender balance: has there been change over time? YES, but it seems like well need to focus on individual countries to make sense of all this Some countries consistently DRAW more women example of Argentina Some countries consistently SEND more women example of Peru We have no idea WHY. But we could dig much deeper in the data.

15 Figure 6 Women's representation among persons moving to Argentina and Brazil, between , by country of origin Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files (IPUMS-International)

16 Figure 7 Women's representation among persons moving from the U.S. or Peru between , by country of destination Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files (IPUMS-International)

17 Key question number 2 Do patterns differ for internal migrants as compared to international migrants? YES....

18 Figure 8 Womens representation among internal and international migrants in the United States Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files (IPUMS-USA)

19 Figure 9 Womens representation among internal migrants in 14 countries Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files (IPUMS-International)

20 Key question number 3 Do patterns differ for short-distance migrants as compared to long-distance migrants? Yes, a little bit Women have typically moved slightly shorter distances Magnitude of difference is minor Long-term trends in distance moved are interesting but dont seem to vary by gender

21 Figure 10 Distance women moved as a proportion of distance men moved in 12 countries, international migrants Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files (IPUMS-International)

22 Figure 11 Distance moved (in km) for internal and international migrants in the United States Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files (IPUMS-USA)

23 Figure 12 Distance moved (in km) for international migrants, women only, by country of destination Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files (IPUMS-International)

24 What else could we be doing? Focus on changing dynamics within particular countries Focus on atypical countries? Or prototypical ones? Look at migrant gender balance along other dimensions education, marital status, employment status, others? Probably many other things we havent thought of yet

25 Additional information about the data at Trent Alexander Donna Gabaccia Thank you. Use it for good, never for evil. Katharine Donato Johanna Leinonen


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