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CLASSICAL APPROACHES 1. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Contribution of Tailor- Definition:- Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing.

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Presentation on theme: "CLASSICAL APPROACHES 1. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Contribution of Tailor- Definition:- Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing."— Presentation transcript:

1 CLASSICAL APPROACHES 1. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Contribution of Tailor- Definition:- Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way Principles- Use of science for the rule of thumb Scientific selection and training of workers Cooperation between labours and management Maximum output Division of responsibility.

2 TECHNIQUES- Scientific study of work:- Method study, Motion study, time study, Method study, Motion study, time study, Fatigue study. Fatigue study. Scientific task planning Scientific selection and traning of works Standarddisation Differential wage system Specialization or Functional formanship Mental revolution

3 Contribution of Frank and Lilian Gilberth- Contribution of Frank and Lilian Gilberth- Motion Study Contribution of Henry L.Gantt- Task and bonus plan Three categories of workers Supervisors should also be paid bonus Publicly demonstrate the efficiency Contribution of Harrington Emerson- Line and staff organization

4 Principles- Ideals Common sense Competent counsel Discipline Fair deal Reliable, Immediate, Adequate Dispatching Standards and Scheduling Standardized condition Standardized operations Standard practice instructions Reward for efficiency

5 EVOLUTION-Benefits:- 1.To Employees -Maximum production -Maximum production -Industrial peace -Industrial peace -benefits of specialization -benefits of specialization 2.To Workers: -Better working condition -Better working condition -More remuneration -More remuneration -Improvement in standard of living -Improvement in standard of living -Increase in efficiency -Increase in efficiencyDemerits:- 1.By owners: -Difficult to introduce -Difficult to introduce -Only suitable for large scale business -Only suitable for large scale business - Dependency on exports - Dependency on exports 2.By Workers: -Fear of retrenchment -Fear of retrenchment -Lack of initiative -Lack of initiative -opposition by lobour unions -opposition by lobour unions -Exploitation of labourers -Exploitation of labourers -Inhuman behaviour -Inhuman behaviour

6 2-ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT By-Henry Fayol (Process Management) Business Activities:- TechnicalCommercialFinancialSecurityAccountingManagerial Managerial Activities:- Functions-PlanningOrganizingCoordinatingCommandingControlling

7 PRINCIPLES:- Division of work Authority and responsibility Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Priority to general interest over industrial interest Fair remuneration Effective centralization OrderEquity Stability in the tenure of personnel Initiative Scalar chain Esprit de crops

8 3-BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT By:-Max Weber (German social Scientist) Features:- Proper division of work Clear hierarchy of authority System of rules Impersonal relations between people Promotion based on competence Evolution:-MERITS-Specialization Regularity of employees Importance to post DEMARITS- Paper formality increases Red Tapism increases Ignores personal relation Lack of initiative in the workers Workers oppose change

9 NEO CLASSICAL APPROACHES- 1.HUMAN RELATION APPROACH -Elton Mayo famous psychologist-Haw thorn experiments -Western Electric company’s haw thorn plant in U.S.A during 1927 to the plant manufactured telephone parts 29,000 Workers were employed. Study was on:- Workers were employed. Study was on:- Relation between light and production. Relation between condition of workers and production. Informal group and relation with production. Relation between economic incentives and production

10 EVALUATIONImportance:- No relation in workers conditions and productivity Non economic awards do effect the efficiency of workers Factory is a social organization Democratic leadership style more effective Psychology of workers is very important Workers to be associated with decision making Proper rest interval during working hours Workers to be properly informed Limitations:- Only human factor considered. People form separate groups but not a family Cannot satisfy all with non economic awards No more satisfaction in informal groups

11 2.BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE APPROACH By- Douglas, Fredric Hertzberg, Abraham Maslow etc. Suggestions:- Participation in policy determination Human way of treatment Latest talent of the employees to be brought out Provide healthy environment System of self-discipline

12 MODERN APPROACH 1.Ouantitative Approach-C.W Churchman (operational research)(1950 ) Formula to solve the problem of manager:- Theory of probability-Network analysis Sampling analysis-Break-Even analysis Correlation/Regression analysis Time series analysis-Cash benefit analysis Ratio analysis-Waiting line theory Variance analysis Statistical quality control Linear programming Game theory

13 2. SYSTEM APPROACH- (1960) Chester Bernard, Herbert A. Simon and colleagues Whole Organization – a system Departments – Sub systems Decision taken to be after considering all the sub syste 3.CONTINGENCY APPROACH-(1970) Features:- Managerial action influences the environment Managerial actions changes according to the situation Coordination in the organization and environment Limitations:- What action to be taken in a situation A situation can be affected by many factors


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