Presentation on theme: "Gene Technology Karyotyping Genetic Engineering"— Presentation transcript:
1 Gene Technology Karyotyping Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering in Medicine & SocietyGenetic Engineering in Agriculture
2 Karyotyping: a picture of your chromosomes aligned according to size and shape starting with the longest one.A karyotype is a specialized test that is done in a specific laboratory called a Cytogenetics lab.Used to determine genetic diseases: Can see missing chromosomes or parts of chromosomes and added pieces of chromosomes or full chromosomes. You can also see defects in the chromosomesIn order to analyze chromosomes, the sample must contain cells that are actively dividing (in metaphase in mitosis)
3 Process of Making a Karyotype In order to study these disorders, cells from a person are grown with a chemical that stops cell division at the metaphase stageDuring metaphase, a chromosome exists as two chromatidsattached at the centromere.2. The cells are stained to reveal banding patterns and placed on glassslides.3. The chromosomes are observed under the microscope, wherethey are counted, checked for abnormalities, and photographed4. The photograph is then enlarged, and the images of the chromosomesare individually cut out.5. The chromosomes are identified and arranged in homologous pairs.
4 1. Picture of chromosomes aligned together Align according to size and banding patterns
5 Genetic Engineering Involves building RECOMBINANT DNA – Manipulation of DNA forpractical purposesInvolves building RECOMBINANT DNA –from 2 or more different organismsEX: Insulin – protein hormone regulates sugar metabolism – gene transferred to bacteria – transcribed/translated
7 Steps in Genetic Engineering 1 – DNA is cutRestriction enzymes are bacterial enzymes that recognize and bind to specific short sequences of DNA, then cut the DNA between specific nucleotides within the sequences.Vector – agent used to carry gene of interest into another cell - plasmid
8 2 – Recombinant DNA is produced Enzyme – DNA ligase – added to help bond DNA fragments together3 – Gene is clonedMany copies of gene of interest are made each time host cell reproduces4 – Cells are screenedEach time cell reproduces - it makes a copy of gene of interest – transcribes/translates gene to make protein coded.
10 Genetic Engineering in Medicine & Society Clotting Factor VIII for HemophiliaGrowth FactorsInterleukins – HIV, cancer, immune issuesInterferons – viruses, cancerTaxol – ovarian cancerVaccinesSolution containing all /part of a harmless version of a pathogen – immune system recognizes pathogen’s surface proteins when injected – responds by making defensive proteins – antibodies – combats pathogen
11 Gene Therapy Examples: Cancer – Cystic Fibrosis Technique that involves putting a healthy copy of a gene into the cells of a person whose copy of the gene is defective.Cells are removed from patient, healthy genes are inserted into cells, cells returned to patient’s body.Substance lacking is produced by cells with new genesExamples: Cancer – Cystic FibrosisHemophiliaRheumatoid arthritis
18 Genetic Engineering in Agriculture Crop Plants – improve favorable characteristics, yields, resistance to pests and herbicides (potatoes-soybeans-corn)Growth Hormone increases milk production – weight gain in livestockRisks?
19 Cloning Genetically identical 1997 – Scientists announced the first successful cloning using differentiated cells – a lamb named DOLLY!
23 Stem Cells Adult (Somatic) Stem Cells; Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissuesThe primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.a. Found in tissues/organs:b. found in Bone marrow: can generate bone, cartilage,fat, cells that support the formation of blood, andfibrous connective tissue. Also form all blood cellsc. adult brain: generate the brain's three major cell
24 STEM CELLS Embryonic Stem Cells These cells form at the blastocyst stage of development. A blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells that is smaller than a pinhead. The embryonic stem cells lie within this ball of cells.The undifferentiated embryonic stem cells are next stimulated to differentiate into the desired type of cell. They make nerve cells, heart cells, brain cells, muscle cells and other types of cells.To produce differentiated cells the researchers modify the cells by inserting specific genes