Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER OUTLINE Building Blocks of Social Structure Types of Social Interaction.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER OUTLINE Building Blocks of Social Structure Types of Social Interaction."— Presentation transcript:

1 chapter McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER OUTLINE Building Blocks of Social Structure Types of Social Interaction Types of Societies Groups within Societies The Structure of Formal Organizations 4 SOCIAL STRUCTURE

2 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 Sec. 1: Building blocks █Social Structure: The way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships.

3 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Sec. 1: Building blocks █Statuses –Status Status refers to any of the socially defined positions within a large group or society. A person holds more than one status simultaneously. Examples of statuses: –president –daughter –student –neighbor

4 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Sec. 1: Building blocks █Statuses –Ascribed and Achieved Status Ascribed status is a status one is born with. Achieved status is a status one earns. –Master Status Master status is a status that dominates others and determines a person’s general position in society.

5 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Sec. 1: Building blocks █ Figure 5.1: Social Statuses

6 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Sec. 1: Building blocks █Social Roles –Social Roles Social roles are sets of expectations for people who occupy a given status. –Role Expectations v Performance What you SHOULD do vs what you ACTUALLY do. Continued...

7 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Sec. 1: Building blocks █Social Roles –Role Conflict Role conflict is the challenge of occupying two social positions simultaneously. –Role Strain Role strain describes the difficulties that result from the differing demands and expectations associated with the same social position. –Role Exit Role Exit describes the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s identity, and the establishment of a new role.

8 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Sec. 1: Building blocks █Social Institutions –Social institutions are organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs. –Social institutions provide insight into the structure of society.

9 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Sec. 2: Social Interactions █Exchange – reciprocity █Competition – rules; pros and cons █Conflict – control, dominance █Cooperation – shared benefit █Accomodation – compromise, truce, mediation, arbitration

10 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Sec. 3: Types of societies █ Table 5.3: Stages of Sociocultural Evolution Hunting-and-gathering Beginning of human life Nomadic; reliance on readily available food and fibers Horticultural About 10,000 to 12,000 More settled; development of agriculture years ago and limited technology Agrarian About 5,000 years ago Larger, more stable settlements; improved technology, increased crop yields, and specialization of labor Industrial 1760–1850 Reliance on mechanical power and new sources of energy; centralized workplaces; economic interdependence; formal education Postindustrial 1960s Reliance on services, especially the processing and control of information; expanded middle class Postmodern Latter 1970s High technology; mass consumption of consumer goods and media images; cross-cultural integration Societal TypeFirst AppearanceCharacteristics

11 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Sec. 3: Types of Societies █Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach –A society’s level of technology is critical to the way it is organized. –Preindustrial Societies Hunting-and-Gathering Societies –These societies are composed of small, widely dispersed groups. –These societies use minimal technology. Continued...

12 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Sec. 3: Types of Societies █Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach –Industrial Societies These societies depend on mechanization to produce its goods and services. These societies rely on inventions and energy sources that facilitate agricultural and industrial production. These societies change the function of the family as a self-sufficient unit.

13 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Sec. 3: Types of Societies █Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach –Postindustrial and Postmodern Societies Postindustrial Society –A postindustrial society is one whose economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information. –The main output of postindustrial society is services. Continued...

14 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Sec. 3: Types of Societies █Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach –Postmodern Society A postmodern society is a technologically sophisticated society preoccupied with consumer goods and media images.

15 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Sec. 3: Types of Societies █Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach –Horticultural Societies People plant seeds and crops. People are less nomadic than in hunter-gatherer societies. People use technology in a limited way. –Agrarian Societies People are primarily engaged in production of food. People use technological innovations like the plow for dramatic increases in food production.

16 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Sec. 3: Types of Societies █Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach –This approach views society as undergoing change according to a dominant pattern, known as sociocultural evolution. –Sociocultural evolution refers to the “process of change and development in human societies resulting from growth in their stores of cultural information.”

17 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Sec. 3: Types of societies █Durkheim’s Mechanical and Organic Solidarity –Mechanical solidarity refers to a collective consciousness that emphasizes group solidarity, implying that all individuals perform the same task. –Organic solidarity refers to the collective consciousness that hinges on the need a society’s members have for one another.

18 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 Sec. 3: Types of societies █Tönnie’s Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft –Gemeinschaft (guh-MINE-shoft) The Gemeinschaft is defined as a small community in which people have similar backgrounds and life experiences. –Gesellschaft (guh-ZELL-shoft) The Gesellschaft is defined as a large community in which people are strangers and feel little in common with other community residents.

19 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Sec. 3: types of societies █ Table 5.2: Comparison of Gemeinshaft and Gesellschaft Rural life typifies this form. Urban life typifies this form. People share a feeling of community that People have little sense of commonality. results from their similar backgrounds and Their differences appear more striking than life experiences. their similarities. Social interactions, including negotiations, Social interactions, including negotiations, are are intimate and familiar. likely to be impersonal and task-specific. People maintain a spirit of cooperation Self-interest dominates. And unity of will. Tasks and personal relationships cannotThe task being performed is paramount; Be separated. relationships are subordinate. GemeinschaftGesellschaft

20 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 Sec. 3: Types of societies █ Table 5.2: Comparison of Gemeinshaft and Gesellschaft People place little emphasis on individual Privacy is valued. privacy. Informal social control predominates. Formal social control is evident. People are not very tolerant of deviance. People are more tolerant of devianc Emphasis is on ascribed statuses. More emphasis is put on achieved statuses. Social change is relatively limited. Social change is very evident, even within a generation. GemeinschaftGesellschaft

21 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 Sec. 4: Groups within society █Groups –A group is any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with each other on a regular basis. █Groups vary by: –Size –Time together –Organization (formal, informal)

22 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Sec. 4: Groups within society █Types of groups –Primary Group This term refers to a small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation. –Secondary Group This term refers to formal, impersonal groups in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding.

23 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 Sec. 4: Groups within society PRIMARY GROUPS SECONDARY GROUPS █Generally small Usually large █Relatively long Relatively short duration, █period of interaction often temporary █Intimate, face-to-face Little social intimacy █association or mutual understanding █Some emotional Relationships generally █depth in relationships superficial █Cooperative, friendly More formal and impersonal

24 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Sec. 4: Groups within society - Reference Groups (ex. Peer Group) –A reference group is any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating their own behavior. Reference groups set and enforce standards of conduct and belief Reference groups serve as a standard against which people can evaluate themselves and others.

25 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Sec. 4: Groups within society –In-Groups In-groups are any groups or categories to which people feel they belong. –Out-Groups Out-groups are any groups or categories to which people feel they do not belong. –E-communities Facebook, MySpace – Primary group?

26 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Sec. 4: Groups within society - Social Networks and Technology –A social network is a series of social relationships that links a person directly to others, and indirectly links them to still more people. –Networking is a valuable skill to have when job-hunting –Advances in technology, such as browsing web pages or text-messaging, help us to maintain social networks.

27 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 27 Sec. 4: Groups within Society █ Table 5.1: RU Ready for Texting wrk At work A3 Anytime, anywhere, anyplace Abt 2 About to AFAIR As far as I remember AML All my love A/S Age/Sex? AWCIGO And where can I get one? AYT Are you there? CU2NYT See you tonight Grr I’m angry RUF2T Are you free to talk? RUMF Are you male or female? UOK Are you OK? WRU Where are you? LingoMeaning

28 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Sec. 4: Groups within society █Group functions –Define boundaries (clothes, uniform, lang.) –Select leaders –Goals, tasks, decisions –Control member behavior

29 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Sec. 4: Groups within society █Factors that inhibit group “cohesion” –Frequent changes in membership –Disagreements over goals –Poor communication among members –Power struggles –Conflicting personalities –Lack of clear vision by leadership –Public & ongoing criticism by leaders –Role conflict among members

30 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 30 Sec. 5: Structure of formal organizations █Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies –Formal Organization A formal organization is a special-purpose group designed and structured for maximum efficiency. –Examples of formal organizations: U.S. Post Office, McDonald’s, NPHS –Voluntary Associations Organizations established on the basis of common interest, whose members volunteer or even pay to participate. “Formal organizations” and “voluntary organizations” are not mutually exclusive.

31 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 31 Sec. 5: Formal organizations █Characteristics of a Bureaucracy

32 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 32 Sec. 5: Formal organizations Characteristics of a bureaucracy: Characteristics Positive Consequence Negative consequence for the individual Negative consequence for the organization Division of laborProduces efficiency Trained incapacityProduces a narrow perspective Hierarchy of authority Clarifies who is in charge Little voice in decision making Concealment of mistakes Written rules and regulations Shows workers what is expected Does not promote creativity Leads to “ritualism” Employment based on formal qualifications Less favoritismDiscourages some to move on Peter Principle Specific lines of promotion & advancement Job security & seniority Too long to move up the ladder Good people move on

33 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 33

34 McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 34 Sec. 5: Formal organizations █Characteristics of a Bureaucracy –Bureaucratization Bureaucratization is the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic. –Oligarchy Bureaucracy ruled by a few. –Iron Law of Oligarchy Tendency of a bureaucracy to become ruled by a few


Download ppt "Chapter McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER OUTLINE Building Blocks of Social Structure Types of Social Interaction."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google