Presentation on theme: "RECONSTRUCTION 1865 - 1877. QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED Who should be in charge of Reconstruction? How should the southern states be treated? What political,"— Presentation transcript:
QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED Who should be in charge of Reconstruction? How should the southern states be treated? What political, economic, and social rights should be granted to the freedmen and how should these rights be enforced?
LINCOLN’S PLAN President should be the director Southern states never seceded – no need to readmit Reconstruction should be lenient (easy; fair) Southerners should be encouraged to take loyalty oath to the U.S. government 10% Plan – 10% of state must pledge loyalty before being pardoned Emancipation Proclamation…dead before Reconstruction can begin….
JOHNSON’S PLAN Continue Lincoln’s plan Pardon to Southerners who took oath of allegiance to the Union and agreed to abolish slavery Southern states must reject secession, separate from any the Confederate claims/debt. Southern states must ratify the 13 th Amendment
CONGRESSIONAL PLAN Reject Presidential plans Congress should direct Reconstruction Southern states had seceded and must be readmitted to the Union by the Congress South must be punished severely Republicans should remain in power and prevent Democrats, especially Southern Democrats, from regaining power Rights of the freedmen must be protected!
President Johnson v. Congress Johnson disagreed with Congressional plans and vetoed key legislation Freedmen’s Bureau and Civil Rights Act of 1866 Congress passed 2 laws to limit Johnson’s involvement in Reconstruction: Tenure of Office Act – required Presidential dismissals to be approved by Senate Command of the Army Act – limited President’s power as Commander in Chief
IMPEACHMENT OF ANDREW JOHNSON House of Representatives BBrought up charges (11 counts) including violations of the Tenure of Office Act and Command of the Army Act TTo impeach is to accuse – so President Johnson was impeached Senate CConducted the trial and served as the jury 22/3 majority vote needed to remove from office
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Decision Johnson was found not guilty by a 1 vote margin (one vote short of 2/3 votes needed to impeach) 7 Republicans “martyred” themselves by voting not guilty – saved the President but sacrificed their own political futures Importance Upheld the principle of presidential independence of Congress, BUT it did severely restrict the powers of the Presidency for years to come
CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION Civil Rights Act of 1866 – gave equal rights to African Americans, enforced by federal troops Freedmen’s Bureau Act of 1866 – provided services to former slaves: food, clothing, medical care, education, job placement, reunite families 14 th Amendment (1868) – granted citizenship to African Americans, guaranteed equal protection of the laws, voided the Confederate debt, disqualified most former Confederates from holding office unless pardoned by Congress
RADICAL REPUBLICAN RECONSTRUCTION First Reconstruction Act (1867) EEstablished 5 military districts under the command of a military governor CConditions set for being readmitted to the Union Hold open elections for constitutional convention Must guarantee African American suffrage State legislatures must ratify the 14 th Amendment After 1869, states must ratify the 15 th Amendment
RECONSTRUCTION GOVERNMENTS IN THE SOUTHERN STATES Controlled by Carpetbaggers Northerners who moved south after the war to take advantage of opportunities to make money Scalawags Southerners who were loyal to the Union and supported the Republican party African Americans Started at the top of the political ladder – could vote and hold public office
Criticism of State Reconstruction Governments Corrupt Graft Extravagant spending led to increased debt
Accomplishments of State Reconstruction Governments State constitutions guaranteed ccivil liberties, pprovided universal male suffrage, aabolished imprisonment for debt Began to rebuild the South Introduced free, compulsory public education for all children
SOUTHERN WHITES REGAINED CONTROL Increased number of Southern White voters Decreased Northern interest in problems of African Americans –– interests turned to industrialization and urbanization Ku Klux Klan ffrightened African Americans from exercising their voting rights Presidential election of 1876 brought an end to Reconstruction
COMPROMISE OF 1877 Disputed Electoral votes in several states including Florida made it impossible for the Electoral College to choose a President Compromise: in House of Representatives TThe Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes would be President and he promised the Democrats that he would remove the federal troops from the southern states and officially end Reconstruction
LASTING RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION Added to the Constitution AAmendments 13, 14, & 15 SSupremacy of the Federal Government over States Rights Presidential powers IIncreased during wartime Development of the “Solid South” – rejection of the Republican party and solid support of the Democratic party (until 1972 – Nixon)
Results - continued Economic development of the South ddiversification of agriculture (not just cotton!) ddevelopment of industry – “the New South” SSharecropping to fill the labor shortage Continued discrimination against African Americans under State laws (after 1877) VVoting rights denied by poll tax and literacy tests JJim Crow laws established segregation based on race AAfrican Americans were not allowed to join the Democratic party or labor unions