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A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg RoboCup Rescue Austrian RoboCup Workshop 2007 Motivation Rescue Robot League RRFreiburg: Behavior Maps.

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Presentation on theme: "A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg RoboCup Rescue Austrian RoboCup Workshop 2007 Motivation Rescue Robot League RRFreiburg: Behavior Maps."— Presentation transcript:

1 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg RoboCup Rescue Austrian RoboCup Workshop 2007 Motivation Rescue Robot League RRFreiburg: Behavior Maps Rescue Simulation League Virtual Competition RRFreiburg: RFID Technology-based Exploration Agent Competition

2 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop2 Motivation The time problem after an incident

3 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop3 Motivation Where is the benefit from robotics technology? After a disaster many places are unreachable for humans Robots can access places humans cant (e.g. small holes or spaces under the floor) Robots can send video and thermo images from hazardous places Destroyed infrastructure: Problem of self- localization Quality of disaster response strongly depends on information, such as maps with victim locations Tom Haus (firemen at 9/11): We need a tracking system that tells us where we are, where we have been, and where we have to go to Technology from Robotics can be deployed for information gathering and world modeling Autonomous systems: Reduction of cognitive load

4 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop4 Rescue Robot League Research Challenges High degree of mobility Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) Victim detection Autonomy!

5 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop5 Rescue Robot League Build robots that are ready to leave the lab! You might be too small …… or you might be too big

6 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop6 Rescue Robot League Goals and directions Cooperative development with simulation league Step-wise increase of difficulty (e.g. like golf courses) Building of standards for mapping and data exchange between heterogeneous units Towards mixed-initiative solutions, i.e. humans and robots build one team for efficient disaster response

7 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop7 Competition setting Three types of arenas YELLOW ARENA RANDOM MAZE PITCH & ROLL RAMP FLOORING (10°) DIRECTIONAL VICTIM BOXES (FOR AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS) ORANGE ARENA PITCH & ROLL RAMP FLOORING (10°, 15°) HALF CUBIC STEPFIELDS CONFINED SPACES (UNDER ELEVATED FLOORS) VICTIM BOXES WITH HOLES RED ARENA FULL CUBIC STEPFIELDS STAIRS (40°, 20CM RISERS) RAMP (45° WITH CARPET) PIPE STEPS (20CM) DIRECTIONAL VICTIM BOXES REGIONAL/PRELIMINARY ARENAS SHOWN, CHAMPIONSHIP ARENAS WILL BE TWICE THIS SIZE

8 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop8 Competition setting Simulated victims Signs of life: form, motion, heat, sound, CO 2 THERMAL IMAGE VISUAL IMAGE

9 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop9 Competition setting Rules at a glance GeoTIFF map formats will be used to allow comparison of maps to ground truth arena configurations. Best-In-Class awards for autonomy and mobility will be given to robots that find the most victims in the Yellow and Red arenas respectively over all missions. Random mazes with non-flat flooring Stepfield pallets (Orange: half-cubic, Red: full-cubic) Stairs (40°, 20cm riser, 25cm tread depth) Ramp (45° to test torque and center of gravity) Confined spaces (ceiling blocks under elevated floors) Visual acuity (tumbling E eye charts, hazmat labels) Directed perception boxes with victims/targets inside Simulated Victims: 4 per arena, 12 total Signs of life: form, heat, motion, sound, and/or CO2

10 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop10 Competition setting Rules at a glance II (Missions) 15/20/25 minute missions include robot placement at the start point and operator station setup. Each team is responsible for making sure victims are functional (heat, batteries, tags) prior to their mission start. Teams are allowed one operator during missions. Start points will be in the Yellow arena with all robots facing the same direction (north on your map). Yellow arena victims can be scored only by robots with autonomous navigation and victim identification. Operators may take over control at any time to move into the Orange and Red arenas but must return to the start point to resume autonomous searches. Teleoperative robots can only score Orange or Red arena victims, which are placed on both sides of the Yellow arena to encourage complete mapping.

11 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop11 Teams at GermanOpen 2007

12 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop12 Behavior Maps Elevation mapping and classification of rough terrain Basic idea: 1)Robot with tilted Laser scanner and IMU sensor explores rough terrain. 2)Generation of elevation map, and classification with Markov Random Fields (MRFs) 3)Detection of skill pre- conditions, e.g. starting position and angle 4)Planning and execution of skills Lurker robot

13 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop13 Rough terrain Elevation Map Classified Map Behavior Map Behavior Maps cont. Elevation mapping and classification of rough terrain

14 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop14 Behavior Maps cont. Elevation mapping and classification of rough terrain

15 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Rescue Robotics and the RoboCup Rescue Challenge Motivation Rescue Robot League RRFreiburg: Behavior Maps Rescue Simulation League Virtual Competition RRFreiburg: RFID Technology-based Exploration Agent Competition

16 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop16 Rescue Virtual Competition USARSim Based on the Unreal game engine (UT2004, Epic Games) Realistic models of USAR environments, robots (Pioneer2 DX, Sony AIBO), and sensors (Laser Range Finder, Color Camera, IMU, Wheel Odometry) Multiple heterogeneous agents can be placed in the simulation environment High fidelity simulation of up to 12 robots Agents connect via a TCP/IP interface NEW: Communication Server

17 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop17 Rescue Virtual Competition Introduction cont. Unreal Client Unreal Server Command Sensor data Sonar Sensor message

18 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop18 Rescue Virtual Competition Performance Metrics Victim discovery Victims are detected by a simplified sensor retuning ID/state depending on distance Victim ID (10pt), Victim status (20pt), victim location (10pt), additional information (20pt) Self Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Metric quality (50pt): How close are reported locations to ground truth? Multi-robot fusion: Bonus for maps generated by multiple robots Exploration Max. 50pt if exploring the whole area NEW: Explored areas have to be marked as cleared Penalization Robot-Victim collision (-5pt) Teleoperation: Division of total score by (1+N) 2 NEW: One mandatory operator for each team

19 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop19 Rescue Virtual Competition More new features Improved robot models for realistic mobility GeoTIFF format for maps Maps will be overlaid on and compared to ground truth Teams must specify areas cleared Points deducted for victims in cleared areas

20 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop20 Rescue Virtual Competition RRFreiburg solution at RoboCup06 Basic Idea: RFID Technology-based Exploration Robots generate local grid maps, generated from Laser Range data A* based planning on local grid Each robot distributes autonomously RFID tags and counts locally in the memory of tags the relative locations already visited If in perception range, robots receive the data of tags and optimize their search by avoiding frequently visited places Extension: Global planner that resets the local search if beneficial Cheap computation on each robot due to a local world model Locations are stored relatively to the tag, hence do not suffer under positioning errors Efficient coordination without need for communication

21 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop21 Rescue Virtual Competition Results from RoboCup06 cont. Area explored by all teams during the finals

22 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop22 Rescue Virtual Competition Results from RoboCup06: Exploration Trajectories Area explored by our team (red trajectory) compared to all others Area explored by each single robot of our team Semi-final (1276m 2 ) Final (1203m 2 )

23 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop23 Rescue Virtual Competition Video from the final

24 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Rescue Robotics and the RoboCup Rescue Challenge Motivation Rescue Robot League RRFreiburg: Behavior Maps Rescue Simulation League Virtual Competition RRFreiburg: RFID Technology-based Exploration Agent Competition

25 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop25 Rescue Agent Competition Introduction Large scale disaster simulation Simulators for earthquake, fire, civilians, and traffic The task is to develop software agents with different roles, that make roads passable (police) extinguish the fires (fire brigades) rescue all civilians (ambulances) Difference to Soccer Simulation: A challenging Multi-Agent Problem since Agents must cooperate Simulator components are developed within the Infrastructure Competition

26 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop26 Conclusion RoboCup Rescue offers a rich set of problems to AI and Robotics Due to the difficulty for robots to cooperate in harsh environments, research is just at the beginning Developed solutions are socially significant! Links: Rescue Robot League: Homepage: Rescue Simulation League: Homepage: USARSim (code base): Rescue Agent (code base):

27 A. Kleiner, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgRoboCup Rescue - Austrian RoboCup Workshop27 Thanks for your attention!


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