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BUS 290: Critical Thinking for Managers

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1 BUS 290: Critical Thinking for Managers
Text Table of Contents #3: What are the Issues and Conclusions?

2 Critical Thinking: The Argument
This course will use the perspective of Argument Thus, the object of inquiry – i.e., the object of critical evaluation – is an argument Argument a list of statements presented by a speaker or a writer one of the statements is the conclusion  the other statements are the reasons, premises or assumptions of the argument An argument presumes an Issue

3 What Are the Issues? Issue - a question or controversy responsible for a discussion Two types Descriptive Issue – raises question about the accuracy of descriptions of facts – past, present, future Prescriptive Issue - raises questions about what should be or what is right or wrong Dihydrogen Monoxide ?

4 What Are the Conclusions?
Response to an issue The point or message the speaker or writer wants you to accept or believe as true Is inferred from (results from) the presentation of one or more reasons or premises Reasons / premises – statements or propositions presented to support or justify a belief A word about inference - induction vs. deduction Induction – results in probable conclusion Deduction results in certain conclusion Can not critically evaluate statement without a conclusion Why?

5 Identifying Conclusions
Look for the Issue Conclusion answers the question posed by the issue Indicator words Consequently, therefore, thus, suggests, indicates, etc. Likely locations Typically presented at the beginning / end of argument Conclusion is NOT An example, statistic, definition, evidence Consider the context of the communicator The person’s bias or agenda may be obvious And Therefore…? Conclusion may be implied – ask what is the point?

6 Corporate managers are always interested in techniques for increasing the productivity of their workdays. One interesting suggestion made by productivity consultants is to pipe music into the work area. Several recent studies have explored the extent to which different types of music affect worker output. The primary hypothesis examined in the studies was that soft-rock music would prove the greatest aid to productivity. The research has found almost universally that country and western music is the greatest inducement to efficiency. Therefore, corporate officials should seriously consider playing country and western music as a stimulus to worker productivity.

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