Presentation on theme: "BUS 290: Critical Thinking for Managers"— Presentation transcript:
1 BUS 290: Critical Thinking for Managers Text Table of Contents #3:What are the Issues and Conclusions?
2 Critical Thinking: The Argument This course will use the perspective of ArgumentThus, the object of inquiry – i.e., the object of critical evaluation – is an argumentArgumenta list of statements presented by a speaker or a writerone of the statements is the conclusion the other statements are the reasons, premises or assumptions of the argumentAn argument presumes an Issue
3 What Are the Issues?Issue - a question or controversy responsible for a discussionTwo typesDescriptive Issue – raises question about the accuracy of descriptions of facts – past, present, futurePrescriptive Issue - raises questions about what should be or what is right or wrongDihydrogen Monoxide ?
4 What Are the Conclusions? Response to an issueThe point or message the speaker or writer wants you to accept or believe as trueIs inferred from (results from) the presentation of one or more reasons or premisesReasons / premises – statements or propositions presented to support or justify a beliefA word about inference - induction vs. deductionInduction – results in probable conclusionDeduction results in certain conclusionCan not critically evaluate statement without a conclusionWhy?
5 Identifying Conclusions Look for the IssueConclusion answers the question posed by the issueIndicator wordsConsequently, therefore, thus, suggests, indicates, etc.Likely locationsTypically presented at the beginning / end of argumentConclusion is NOTAn example, statistic, definition, evidenceConsider the context of the communicatorThe person’s bias or agenda may be obviousAnd Therefore…?Conclusion may be implied – ask what is the point?
6 Corporate managers are always interested in techniques for increasing the productivity of their workdays. One interesting suggestion made by productivity consultants is to pipe music into the work area. Several recent studies have explored the extent to which different types of music affect worker output. The primary hypothesis examined in the studies was that soft-rock music would prove the greatest aid to productivity. The research has found almost universally that country and western music is the greatest inducement to efficiency. Therefore, corporate officials should seriously consider playing country and western music as a stimulus to worker productivity.