2 The Space Race. -Viewed as contest between communism and capitalism The Space Race -Viewed as contest between communism and capitalism -National pride and fears for national defense played large roles in motivating space race
5 SputnikOn 4 October 1957, the USSR successfully launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the EarthSputnik caused fear and stirred political debate in the United States and the formation of NASAThe National Defense Education Act was passed by Eisenhower in order to strengthen the defenses of the countrySputnik helped to determine the density of the upper atmosphere
10 Animals in SpaceLaika was the first animal that traveled into space in the USSR's Sputnik 2 on November 3, Laika the dog died of stress and overheating soon after reaching spaceIn 1960 Russian space dogs Belka and Strelka orbited the earth and successfully returnedSoviet-launched turtles in 1968 on Zond 5 became the first animals to fly around the MoonThe American space program imported chimpanzees from Africa, and sent at least two into space before launching their first human orbiter
13 Yuri and his spacecraft, Vostok 1 First Human in SpaceOn April 12, 1961, the Soviets succeeded in launching the first human into space, Yuri Gagarin, and returning him safely to EarthYuri and his spacecraft, Vostok 1
14 First American in Space Alan Shepard becomes the first American astronaut to enter space, aboard the Freedom 7 spacecraft, on May 5, 1961Alan and his spacecraft, Freedom 7
25 First Human Space WalkIn March 18, 1965, Soviet man, Aleksei Leonov carried out the first spacewalk. This mission nearly ended in disaster, because Leonov almost failed to return to the capsule and due to a poor retrorocket fire the ship landed 1600 km off target.
26 First America Space Walk During the Gemini 4 mission on June 3, 1965, Ed White became the first American to conduct a spacewalk. Started at 3:45 p.m. White opened the hatch and used the hand-held maneuvering oxygen-jet gun to push himself out of the capsule.
28 President Kennedy’s Challenge May 21, 1961: President Kennedy challenged the United States to land astronauts on the moon and to return them safely to EarthChallenge provided a “finish line” for the space racePresident John F. KennedyNSF North Mississippi GK-8
31 The Apollo MissionsApollo involved landing men on the moon; Apollo 13 was aborted due to a malfunctionJuly 20, 1969, Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong of Apollo 11 were first men on the moonEach mission consisted of three astronauts: one stayed on Command Module in lunar orbit, two descended in Lunar Module to moon’s surfaceTotal of 12 men have walked on the moon – All American!The Apollo 11 launchNeil ArmstrongBuzz Aldrin, in Apollo 11 and on the moon (above and right)
33 When did the space race end? Some historians believe the Space Race ended when Apollo 11 returned safely from the MoonOthers believe that the Race ended when the United States’ Apollo 18 spacecraft docked with a Russian Soyuz spacecraft in 1975A drawing of the Apollo – Soyuz rendezvous (Apollo 18 is on the left)NSF North Mississippi GK-8
34 Apollo – Soyuz Test Project Docked Together on 7/17/75 When docked they two nations carried out the followingjoint scientific experiments, exchanged flags and gifts, signed certificates, visited each other's ships, ate together, and conversed in each other's languages.Undocked at 7/19/75Apollo CSM-1113 person manned spacecraft from USALaunched on 7/15/1975Landed on 7/24/75Soyuz 192 maned space craft from USSR.Launched on 7/15/75Landed on 7/21/75