Presentation on theme: "EARLY CIVILIZATION GEOGRAPHY HAS SHAPED CHINA The “Middle Kingdom”-between heaven and earth Isolated and protected by geographic barriers: -Himalayas."— Presentation transcript:
GEOGRAPHY HAS SHAPED CHINA The “Middle Kingdom”-between heaven and earth Isolated and protected by geographic barriers: -Himalayas and Hindu Kush-west -Gobi and Takla Makan deserts- north -Pacific Ocean-east - jungles-south Great Wall of China-attempted to plug “gap”
GEOGRAPHY OF CHINA (CON) 2 MAIN REGIONS OF CHINA: -THE “Heartland”- region of rivers in the east -OUTLYING REGIONS: -Xinjiang (Sinkiang) -Manchuria-main source of minerals -Mongolia-desert -Tibet-”the roof of the world”
3MAIN RIVERS OF CHINA 1. YANGZI- 5 TH LONGEST IN WORLD-ends at Shanghai 2. HWANG HE (YELLOW)-THE “RIVER OF SORROWS”-overflows, leaving a yellow silt(loess) 3. SI- southeast trade route- ends at Canton and Hong Kong
EARLIEST CHINESE DYNASTIES 1.SHANG:1650-1027BC- -CAPITAL CITY: ANYANG -RULED BY KINGS AND LOCAL WARLORDS -MOST PEOPLE WERE PEASANTS MAIN RELIGIOUS BELIEFS: ANCESTOR VENERATION- offering sacrifices to ancestors to have them speak to gods.
DYNASTIES (CON) --”yin and yang”-balance of good and evil/positive and negative/male and female EARLY CHINESE WRITING: SHANG DYNASTY --first found on “oracle bones” --pictographs:must memorize thousands -- calligraphy- only rich could read and write --a force of unity in China
DYNASTIES (CON) 2.THE ZHOU DYNASTY-1027-256BC --promoted the MANDATE OF HEAVEN to justify their overthrow of the Shang. -MAIN IDEA: the gods decide who should rule. When a dynasty loses the god’s favor,floods, famine and natural disasters occur. A new dynasty takes over, and the DYNASTIC CYCLE begins again.
DYNASTIES(CON) ZHOU DYNASTY CREATED FEUDALISM: a system of ranking society and keeping people in social groups - OTHER ACCOMPLISHMENTS SILKMAKING- ONLY WORN BY NOBLES -FIRST BOOKS-RICE PAPER AND BAMBOO COVERS
PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION IN ANCIENT CHINA 1. CONFUCIANISM: founded by Confucius -born 551BC-a contemporary of Buddha and Socrates -did not write anything down (later recorded in “The Analects” -a philosophy, not a religion
MAIN IDEAS OF CONFUCIANISM 1. THE FIVE RELATIONSHIPS;father-son/older brother-younger brother/husband-wife/ruler- subject/friend-friend. RULES ALL SOCIETY 2. FILIAL PIETY: unconditional respect and honor towards elders and ancestors 3. GOLDEN RULE-”do unto others….” 4. RIGHT OF REBELLION-people can overthrow an unjust ruler
OTHER CHINESE BELIEF SYSTEMS 2.LEGALISM: teachings of Hanfeizi - greed is the greatest motivator -only way to keep order is through strict and harsh rules and punishments 3. DAOISM- “The way of Virtue”-created byLaozi -rejected conflict and strife promoted yielding (like water) as a powerful force. (non-violence?)
STRONG DYNASTIES UNITE CHINA 1. QIN DYNASTY (The Ch’in)-221-206BC - ruled by SHI HUANGDI-the “first emperor” -united China into military districts -abolished feudalism -nobles forced to live in the capital -gave land to peasants (from nobles) -standard weights and measures and coins -built roads and canals
--cracked down on dissent --built GREAT WALL –more symbolic than practical..Combined several separate walls. After Shi Huangdhi died in 210BC, the dynasty was conquered by the HAN
2. HAN DYNASTY—206bc-220ad-GOLDEN AGE --EMPEROR WUDI --expanded China to its present size --created CIVIL SERVICE EXAM to fill government jobs with competent people --OTHER ACHIEVEMENTS: acupuncture, seismograph,paper out of wood, wheelbarrow, suspension bridge,rudder,