2 Matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Stuff! There are three basic states of matter:Solid (s) has definite shape and volumeLiquid (l) shape can change, still has definite volumeGas (g) no definite shape or volumeDraw a representation of the states of matter here.
3 Phase Changes Matter can change from one state (or “phase” to another) There are six possible phase changes. Energy is either absorbed or released..Deposition
4 EnergyThe universe consists of matter and energy. Energy does not have mass or take up space.Energy is involved when matter changes from one state to another.Solid + Energy Liquid “Melting”Example:Ice (s) + heat energy Water (l)
5 Energy ChangesEndothermic- a process which requires, or absorbs energy. (Feels cold)Ex: H2O (s) + energy H2O (l)Ex: Melting, evaporating, boilingExothermic- a process which releases or gives off heat. (Feels hot)Ex:Gasoline burns and releases heatEx: solidify, condensation
7 Classification of Matter There are two kinds of matter:Pure Substances (elements and compounds)MixturesElements- are pure substancesCan’t be broken down by ordinary meansAre found on the Periodic TableUsually found as single atomsSome gaseous elements exist as two atoms bonded together (The HOFBrINCl gases)
8 Compounds Compounds- are also pure substances Can be broken down by chemical reactions onlyAre made up of two or more elements chemically combined, or “bonded”Always have a chemical formula that doesn’t changeThe compound has new properties, not the same as the original elements.
9 Examples of Pure Substances Elements:CarbonOxygenGoldNeonAbout 100 more!(If you are not sure, check the periodic table.)Compounds:Water, H2OSodium chloride, NaClHydrogen peroxide, H2O2Methane, CH4Baking Soda NaHCO3Glucose C6H12O6There thousands and thousands of known compounds!(If it has a chemical formula, it’s a compound.)
10 Mixtures Mixture- a physical combination of two or more substances. A mixture can be separated by physical meansThe components of the mixture retain (keep) their original propertiesThe composition can vary (for example. A mixture could be 50% A and 50% B, or it could beonly 30% A and 70% B.)
11 Examples of Mixtures Salt water ( H2O and NaCl) Sugar water ( H2O and C12H22O11)Air ( Nitrogen, Oxygen, and trace elements)Brass ( copper and zinc combine to form an alloy)
12 Mixtures There are two kinds of mixtures. Homogeneous mixtures: Appear uniform, or the same, throughoutAlso known as solutionsHeterogeneous mixtures:Not uniform in appearance or composition
13 Examples of Mixtures Homogeneous: Heterogeneous: Air Salt water Sugar waterBrassSolutionsHeterogeneous:SoilSand and water mixtureSometimes you must look very closely, or even magnify.
14 Separation of Mixtures Mixtures can be separated by physical means. Physical means include:Filtration separates components based on their sizeDistillation separates components based on their different boiling pointsChromatography separates based on differences in solubility
18 Physical and Chemical Changes Physical Change-Is usually reversible (can be undone)All phase changes are physical changesList the six phase changes here:(s) (l) melting and (l) (s) freezing(l) (g)Dissolving is a physical changeShape changes are physical changes (such as: tearing, bending, etc.)
19 Physical and Chemical Changes Always produces a new substanceThe new substance will have different propertiesEvidence of Chemical ChangeColor changeBubbles of gas appearA new solid forms (a “precipitate)Temperature change
20 Chemical Changes Chemical Changes are also called chemical reactions. Chemical reactions always produce a new substance:RustingBurningCookingDigestingThere are many more!
21 Chemical Reactions A + B C reactants yields productsChemical reactions must obey the Law of Conservation of Mass:The mass of the products must equal the mass of the reactants.In other words, matter is neither created nor destroyed5 grams of A + 5 grams of B yields 10 grams of C
22 Properties A property is something you can observe or measure. There are two types of properties, physical and chemical.
23 Physical PropertiesPhysical properties can be measured or observed without changing or destroying the sampleExamples of physical propertiesMassColorDensityMelting and boiling pointsDuctility and malleability (flexibility)
24 Physical Properties There are two types of physical properties Extensive- these depend on the amount of the substance. (Mass, length, and volume)Intensive- stay the same no matter what the amount of the substance is. (Color, density, conductivity, etc.)
25 Chemical PropertiesChemical Properties- how a substance reacts with other substancesReacts with waterReacts with oxygenReacts with whateverEven if it doesn’t react, that is also a chemcial propertyThese are easy to recognize, always “React”
26 Chemical PropertiesCorrosionFlammabilityOxidizes