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Environmental Science Introduction. Environment (biophysical), the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Science Introduction. Environment (biophysical), the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Science Introduction

2 Environment (biophysical), the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism Environment (systems), the surroundings of a physical system that may interact with the system by exchanging mass, energy, or other properties Built environment, constructed surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging from the large-scale civic surroundings to the personal places Knowledge environment, social practices, technological and physical arrangements intended to facilitate collaborative knowledge building, decision making, inference or discovery Environment

3  Natural environment, all living and non-living things  Social environment, the culture that an individual lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact  Physical environment, in ecology  In computing:  Desktop environment, in computing, the graphical user interface to the computer  Environment variables, the dynamic set of variables defined in a process  Integrated development environment, a type of computer software that assists computer programmers in developing software  Runtime environment, a virtual machine state which provides software services for processes or programs while a computer is running

4 Definition:The biophysical environment is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development and evolution. "the environment" is often used to refer to the global environment, usually in relation to humanity. Environment(biophysical)

5 Environment Definition: The complex set of physical, geographic, biological, social, cultural and political conditions that surround an individual or organism and that ultimately determines its form and nature of its survival. 1)All factors living and nonliving that affect an individual organism or population at any point in the life cycle. 2) Set of circumstances surrounding a particular occurrence. 3) All the things that surrounds us.

6 Environmental Science An interdisciplinary branch of science that investigates questions related to the human population, resources, and damages caused by pollution and disturbance. Environmental science is integrative and involves complex biology, chemistry, politics, sociology, geology, agriculture, economics.

7 Why We Want to Study the State of Environment?  The need for information that clarifies modern environmental concepts such as the need to conserve biodiversity, the need to lead more sustainable lifestyles and the need to use resources more equitably.  A need to change the way in which we view our own environment by a practical approach based on observation and self learning.  The need to create a concern for our environment that will trigger pro- environmental action, including activities we can do in our daily life to protect it.

8 Objective of This Course Develop a concern for our environment. Begin to act at your own level to protect the environment we all live in.

9  Natural Environment  Anthropogenic Environment Types of Environment

10 The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof.  Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive human intervention, including all vegetation, microorganisms, soil, rocks, atmosphere, and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries  Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate, as well as energy, radiation, electric charge, and magnetism, not originating from human activity. Natural Environment

11 Land management policies have been developed to preserve the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia while allowing ample access for visitors

12 Bachalpsee in the Swiss Alps; generally mountainous areas are less affected by human activity.The lake is featured in Gmail as part of its mountain theme background

13 Natural Environment on Earth is divided into 4 realms  the lithosphere,  the hydrosphere,   the atmosphere, and   the biosphere as correspondent to rocks, water, air, and life.

14 Rigid, outermost shell of a rocky planet defined on the basis of the mechanical properties. On Earth, it comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet defined on the basis of the chemistry and mineralogy is a crust. The Lithosphere

15 The Earth's layered structure. (1) inner core; (2) outer core; (3) lower mantle; (4) upper mantle; (5) lithosphere; (6) crust The Lithosphere




19 The Structure of Hydrosphere 8 th Grade Curriculum – Developed for NCDPI - 2008

20 Hydrosphere  The hydrosphere is the part of the earth that contains water.  The hydrosphere in physical geography describes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet.

21 The Structure of Hydrosphere  97.5% of water is salt water and it found in the oceans.  remaining 2.5 percent is freshwater.  Fresh water distribution:  Ice: 68.7%  Groundwater: 29.9%  lakes, reservoirs and river systems they are most easily accessible for our economic needs and absolutely vital for water ecosystems.: 0.26 %

22  The total mass of the Earth's hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 10 18 tonnes, which is about 0.023% of the Earth's total mass.  About 20 × 10 12 tonnes of this is in the Earth's atmosphere (the volume of one tonne of water is approximately 1 cubic metre).  Approximately 75% of the Earth's surface, an area of some 361 million square kilometers (139.5 million square miles), is covered by ocean.  The average salinity of the Earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (3.5%)

23 Professor Igor Shiklomanov

24 Hydrosphere  Igor Shiklomanov, the man selected by the United Nations to do its world inventory of water resources, estimated that there are 1386 million cubic kilometres of water on earth.  This includes water in liquid and frozen forms in groundwaters, glaciers, oceans, lakes and streams.  Saline water account for 97.5% of this amount.  Fresh water accounts for only 2.5%.  Of this fresh water 68.7% is in the "form of ice and permanent snow cover in the Arctic, the Antarctic, and in the mountainous regions. Next, 29.9% exists as fresh groundwaters. Only 0.26% of the total amount of fresh waters on the Earth are concentrated in lakes, reservoirs and river systems where they are most easily accessible for our economic needs and absolutely vital for water ecosystems."

25 Where Your Water Is Located—Oceans and Ice What bodies of water hold the largest amount of water? Oceans—the largest bodies of water on Earth (contain salt water only) Examples of oceans: Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean

26 Where Your Water Is Located—Oceans and Ice Icebergs: a large piece of freshwater ice floating in open waters.

27 Understanding Where Your Water Is Located—Oceans and Ice Glaciers: any large mass of ice that moves slowly over land

28 Fresh Water Locations—Surface Water What is the difference between a watershed and a river basin? Both terms describe land that drains into a river, stream or lake. River Basin: the term used to describe an area that drains into a large river Watershed: the term used to describe an area that drains into a smaller river or stream.

29 Fresh Water Locations—River Basins and Watersheds Larger river basins are made up of many interconnected watersheds Example: Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins are made of many small watersheds. The water in a watershed runs to the lowest point—a river, stream, lake, or ocean

30 Fresh Water Locations—Rivers, Streams, and Lakes What is a river? A large channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope—made of many streams that come together.

31 Fresh Water Locations—Rivers, Streams, and Lakes What is a stream? A small channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope—made of small gullies.

32 Fresh Water Locations—Rivers, Streams, and Lakes What is a lake? A body of water of considerable size contained on a body of land.

33 Fresh Water Locations--Groundwater What is groundwater? The water found in cracks and pores in sand, gravel and rocks below the earth’s surface.

34 Aquifer What is aquifer? Is a rock layer that stores water and allows water to flow through it.

35 Other Surface Waters What is a wetland? An area where the water table is at, near or above the land surface long enough during the year to support adapted plant growth.

36 Other Surface Waters What are the types of wetlands? Swamps, bogs, and marshes Swamp: a wetland dominated by trees Bogs: a wetland dominated by peat moss Marshes: a wetland dominated by grasses

37 Atmosphere  The atmosphere is a thin layer of air that protects the Earth’s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful sun rays.  Earth's atmosphere, which contains oxygen used by most organisms for respiration and carbon dioxide used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis, also protects living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation.

38 Atmospheric Gases (Mixture of gases, solids, and liquids) Nitrogen - 78% Oxygen - 21% Water Vapor – 0 to 4% Used for clouds and precipitation Carbon Dioxide -.037% Keeps Earth warm and is used by plants to make food Argon -.93% Traces of neon, helium, methane, krypton, xenon, hydrogen, and ozone

39  Troposphere (which includes the planetary boundary layer or peplosphere as lowest layer)  Stratosphere (which includes the ozone layer)  Mesosphere,  Thermosphere (which contains the ionosphere),  Exosphere and  Each of the layers has a different lapse rate, defining the rate of change in temperature with height. The Earth's atmosphere consists of

40 Did you know that The Science Monkey’s Took Evan? The Science Monkey’s Took Evan Say it with me…

41 I know you are thinking…what is he talking about??? The Science Monkey’s Took Evan MEANS…. Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Exosphere THE FIVE LAYERS OF THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE FROM THE EARTH OUT!

42 Why is the atmosphere divided into 5 different layers? Any guesses? The atmosphere is divided into five different layers because the atmosphere is not uniform, its properties change with altitude. Two properties change with altitude, the AIR PRESSURE and the AIR TEMPERATURE Lets look at each layer individually.

43 The first layer of the atmosphere is the… The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere nearest to earth. The troposphere goes from 0km to 10km, contains 99% of the water vapor and 75% of the atmospheric gases All weather happens in the troposphere. More than half the air in the total atmosphere is in this layer. The temperature drops as the altitude increases. TROPOSPHERE

44 The second layer of the atmosphere is the… The stratosphere goes from 10km to 50 km. The temperature goes up with altitude. Most jets fly in this layer. The protective ozone is at the top of the atmosphere (It protects us from the ultraviolet radiation of the sun.) STRATOSPHERE

45 The third layer of the atmosphere is the… The Mesosphere goes from 50km to 90km. In the mesosphere, the temperature drops with altitude. The mesosphere is the coldest layer of the atmosphere. Meteors burn up in this layer. Radio waves are reflected back to earth in the mesosphere. MESOSPHERE

46 The fourth layer of the atmosphere is the… The thermosphere goes from 90km to 300km. In the thermosphere the temperature goes up with altitude. The thermosphere is the hottest layer of the atmosphere. Curtains of light called auroras occur in this layer. The Ionosphere is found in the thermosphere. This is the component of the thermosphere that makes the auroras. THERMOSPHERE

47 The last layer of the atmosphere is the… The exosphere is the outermost layer of the atmosphere. The temperature in the exosphere goes up with altitude. Satellites orbit earth in the exosphere. EXOSPHERE

48 GOOD LUCK! It is important to understand the different characteristics of the earth’s atmosphere. As you go through the following slides, challenge your partner to see who can name the correct layer in which each characteristic can be found.







55 Biosphere

56  The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be termed the zone of life on Earth, a closed system (apart from solar and cosmic radiation and heat from the interior of the Earth), and largely self- regulating.  By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

57  The biosphere is postulated to begin with a process of  biopoesis (life created naturally from non-living matter such as simple organic compounds) or  biogenesis (life created from living matter), at least some 3.5 billion years ago.

58  Biotic components are the living things that shape an ecosystem. A biotic factor is any living component that affects another organism, including animals that consume the organism in question, and the living food that the organism consumes. Each biotic factor needs energy to do work and food for proper growth. Biotic factors include human influence.  Abiotic components which are non-living components of an organism's environment, such as temperature, light, moisture, air currents, etc.  Biotic components usually include: Biotic & Abiotic Component

59  Producer, i.e. autotroph: e.g. plants, “ an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).  Consumers, i.e. heterotrophs: e.g. animals, they depend upon producers (occasionally other consumers) for food.  Decomposers, i.e. detritivores: e.g. fungi and bacteria, they break down chemicals from producers and consumers (usually dead) into simpler form which can be reused.

60 S. NoDateEvents 1 2 nd FebruaryWorld Wetlands Day: Wetlands and agriculture 2 21 st MarchInternational Day of Forests and the Tree 3 22nd MarchWorld Water Day 4 22nd AprilEarth Day 5 22nd MayInternational Day for Biological Diversity 6 5th JuneWorld Environment Day 7 17th JuneWorld Day to Combat Desertification 8 16th SeptemberInternational Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer 9 16th OctoberWorld Food Day 10 6th NovemberInternational Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict Annual Environmental Events According to the United Nations Environment Programme: Environment for development following are the annual environmental events

61 Institutions in Environment Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), Mumbai –An NGO founded in 1883. –Wildlife policy building, research, popular publications and peoples action have been unique features of this multifaceted society. –Works towards conservation of wildlife species and ecosystems. –Publications: HORNBILL, journal on natural history, Salim Ali handbook on birds, JC Daniel’s book on Indian reptiles, SH Prater’s book of Indian mammals and PV bole’s book of Indian trees. –Assisting government in framing of wildlife related laws. –‘SAVE THE SILENT VALLEY’ campaign.

62 World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-I), New Delhi –Initiated in 1969 in Mumbai and then moved to new Delhi with several branch offices all over India. –Wildlife education and awareness. –Organizes nature clubs of India program for children. Works as a think tank and lobby force for environment and development issues.

63 Center for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi –Organizing campaigns, holding workshops/conferences and producing environment related publications are some of its activities. –It published ‘State of India’s Environment’, the first of its kind to be produced as a Citizen’s Report on the Environment. –It publishes popular magazine ‘DOWN TO EARTH’ a Science and Environment fortnightly. –It is also involved in publication of material in the form of books, posters, video films and also conducts workshops and seminars on biodiversity related issues.

64 CPR Environmental Education Centre, Madras  CPREEC is a Centre of Excellence of the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, established jointly by the Ministry and the C.P. Ramaswami Aiyar Foundation in 1988.  Conducts variety of programs to spread environmental awareness and creates an interest in conservation among the general public.  It focusses attention on NGOs, teachers, women, youth and children to generally promote conservation of nature and natural resources.  Its programs include components on wildlife and biodiversity issues. It also produces a large number of publications.

65 Centre for Environment Education (CEE), Ahmedabad  Centre for Environment Education was established in August 1984 as a Centre of Excellence supported by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. CEE, a national institution with its headquarters in Ahmedabad, has a mandate to promote environmental awareness nationwide.  It has wide range of programs on the environment and produces a variety of educational material. CEE’s training in Environment Education (TEE) program has trained many environment educators.

66 Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Environment Education and Research (BVIEER), Pune  This institute is a part of Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University and has Ph.D, masters and Bachelors program in Environmental Sciences.  Also offers an innovative Diploma in Environment Education for in- service teachers.  It implements a large outreach programs that has covered over 135 schools in which it trains teachers and conducts fortnightly Environment Education Programs.  Biodiversity Conservation is a major focus of its research initiatives.

67 Uttarkhand Seva Nidhi Paryavaran Shiksha Sansthan(UKSN), Almora  Uttarakhand Seva Nidhi is a public charitable trust founded in 1967.  In 1987 it was appointed a nodal agency by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development, Government of India to undertake locale- specific environmental education programmes both in rural schools and villages in the hill districts of Uttar Pradesh, now Uttaranchal.

68 - A Nodal Agency and supports NGOs in need of funds for their environment related activities. - Major program is organising and training school teachers to use its locale specific Environment Education Workbook Program. - The main targets are linked with sustainable resource use at the village level through training school children. - Its environment education program covers about 500 schools.

69 Kalpavriksh, Pune  It is an NGO and works on variety of fronts: education and awareness; investigation and research; direct action and lobbying; and litigation with regard to environment and development issues.  Its activities include talks and audio-visuals in schools and colleges, nature walks and outstation camps, organizing student participation in ongoing campaigns including street demonstrations, pushing for consumer awareness regarding organic food, press statements, handling green alerts, and meetings with the city’s administrators.  It is involved with the preparation of site-specific, environmental manuals for school teachers.  Kalpavriksh was responsible for developing India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan in 2003.

70 Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON), Coimbatore

71 Contd...  Dr.Salim Ali wished to support a group of committed conservation scientists on permanent basis and that dream became a reality only after his demise.  It is an independent organization and is based at Coimbatore since 1990.  It has instituted a variety of field programs that have added to the country’s information on our threatened biodiversity.  Lets leave behind a LIVING EARTH FOR OUR CHILDREN

72 Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun  The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) is an autonomous institution under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India  This institution was established in 1982 as a major training establishment for Forest Officials and Research in Wildlife Management.  Its most significant publication has been ‘Planning A Wildlife Protected Area Network for India’ (Rodgers and Panwar, 1988).  The organisation has over the years added an enormous amount of information on India’s biological wealth.  It has trained a large number of Forest Department Officials and Staff as Wildlife Managers.  Its M.Sc. Program has trained excellent wildlife scientists. It also has an Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) cell.  It trains personnel in ecodevelopment, wildlife biology, habitat management and Nature interpretation.

73 Botanical Survey of India (BSI) Govt of India, Ministry of Environment and Forest –It was established in1890 at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. –However it was closed for several years after 1939 and was reopened in 1954. –It carries out surveys of plant resources in different regions.

74 Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) Govt of India, Ministry of Environment and Forest –It was established in 1916. –Its mandate was to do a systematic survey of fauna in India. –It has over the years collected ‘type specimens’ on the bases of which our animal life has been studied over the years. Its origins were collections based at the Indian Museum at Calcutta, which was established in 1875. –Older collections of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which were made between 1814 and 1875, as well as those of the Indian Museum made between 1875 and 1916 were then transferred to the ZSI. –Today it has over a million species!. This makes it one of the largest collections in Asia. –It has done an enormous amount of work on taxonomy and ecology.

75 Silent Valley National Park Silent Valley National Park (Core zone: 236.74 square kilometres is located in the Nilgiri Hills, Palakkad District in Kerala, South India. - The area in this national park was historically explored in 1847 by the botanist Robert Wight, and is associated with Hindu legend. -The park is one of the last undisturbed tracts of South Western Ghats mountain rain forests and tropical moist evergreen forest in India. - Adjacent to the Karimpuzha National Park (225 km²) to the north and Mukurthi National Park (78.46 km²) to the north-east, it is the core of the Nilgiri International Biosphere Reserve (1,455.4 km²), and is part of The Western Ghats World Heritage Site, Nilgiri Sub- Cluster (6,000+ km²) THUNDER consideration by UNESCO.

76 Location in Kerala, India LocationPalakkad District, Kerala, India Nearest cityCoimbatore Established26 December 1980

77 Plans for a hydroelectric project that threatened the parks high diversity of wildlife stimulated an environmentalist Social Movement in the 1970s called Save Silent Valley which resulted in cancellation of the project and creation of the park in 1980. The visitors' centre for the park is at Sairandhri.

78 The area is locally known as "Sairandhrivanam" literally, in Malayalam: Sairandhri's Forest. In local Hindu legend, Sairandhri is Draupadi, the polyandrous wife of the five Pandavas, who disguised herself as Sairandhri, queen Sudeshna's assistant, while they were in exile. The Pandavas, deprived of their kingdom, set out on a 14-year exile. They wandered south, into what is now Kerala, until one day they came upon a magical valley where rolling grasslands met wooded ravines, a deep green river bubbled its course through impenetrable forest, where at dawn and twilight the tiger and elephant would drink together at the water's edge, where all was harmonious and man unknown. Beside that river, in a cave on a hill slope, the Pandavas halted. History

79 In 1973 the valley became the focal point of "Save Silent Valley", India's fiercest environmental movement of the decade, when the Kerala State Electricity Board decided to implement the Silent Valley Hydro-Electric Project (SVHEP) centered on a dam across the Kunthipuzha River. The resulting reservoir would flood 8.3 km² of virgin rainforest and threaten the Lion- tailed Macaque. In 1976 the Kerala State Electricity Board announced plans to begin dam construction and the issue was brought to public attention. Romulus Whitaker, founder of the Madras Snake Park and the Madras Crocodile Bank, was probably the first person to draw public attention to the small and remote area

80 Individuals who have been instrumental in shaping the environmental history in our country:- Salim Ali Sálim Moizuddin Abdul Ali was an Indian ornithologist and naturalist. Sometimes referred to as the "birdman of India", Salim Ali was among the first Indians to conduct systematic bird surveys across. Born: November 12, 1896, Mumbai Died: July 27, 1987, Mumbai Awards: Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan People in Environment

81 He has written several great books including the famous ‘Book of Indian Birds’. His autobiography,’Fall of a Sparrow’ should be read by every nature enthusiast. He was our country’s leading conservation scientist and influenced environmental policies in our country for over 50 years.

82 Indira Gandhi –As a PM, she has played a highly significant role in the preservation of India’s wild life. –It was during her period as a PM, that the network of protected areas (Pas) grew from 65 to 298!. –The Wildlife Protection Act was formulated during the period when she was PM and the Indian Board for Wildlife was extremely active as she personally chaired all its meetings. –India gained a name for itself by being a major player in CITESITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival and other International Environmental Treaties and Accords during her tenure.

83 SP Godrej –One of India’s greatest supporters of wildlife conservation and nature awareness programs. –He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1999 and several other awards between 1975 and 1999. MS Swaminathan –One of India’s foremost agricultural scientists and has also been concerned with various aspects of biodiversity conservation both of cultivars and wild biodiversity. –Founder of the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) in Chennai, which does work on the conservation of biological diversity.

84 Madhav Gadgil –A well known ecologist in India. –His interests range from broad ecological issues such as developing Community Biodiversity Registers and conserving sacred groves to studies on the behavior of mammals, birds and insects. Anil Agarwal –He was a journalist who wrote the first report on the ‘State of India’s Environment’ in 1982. –He founded the Center for Science and Environment which is an active NGO that supports various environmental issues.

85 M C Mehta –India’s most famous environmental lawyer. –Since 1984, he has filed several Public Interest Litigation (PIL) for supporting the cause of environmental conservation. –Protecting the Taj Mahal, cleaning up the Ganges River, banning intensive shrimp farming on the coast, initiating Government to implement environmental education in schools and colleges, and a variety of other conservation issues.

86 She is known as one of India’s Champions who has supported the cause of downtrodden tribal people whose environment is being affected by the dams on the Narmada river. Sunderlal Bahuguna His Chipko Movement has become an internationally well-known example of a highly successful conservation action program through the efforts of local people for guarding their forest resources. –His fight to prevent the construction of the Tehri Dam in a fragile earthquake prone setting is a battle. – The Garhwal Hills will always remember his dedication to the cause for which he has walked over 20 thousand kilometers. Medha Patkar

87 Internationally known environmental thinkers who have made landmarks and whose names are frequently mentioned are:- Charles Darwin –Author of “Origin of Species” which brought to light the close relationship between habitats and species. –It also brought about a new thinking of man’s relationship with other species that was based on evolution. –Alfred Wallace came to the same conclusions during his work. Henry Thoreau –In 1860, he wrote that the wilderness should be preserved after he lived in the wild for a year. –He felt that most people did not care for nature and would sell it off for a small sum of money.

88 Ralph Emerson –He spoke of the dangers of commerce to our environment way back in the 1840s. John Muir –He is remembered as having saved the great ancient sequoia trees in California’s forests. –In the 1890s he formed the Sierra club, which is a major conservation NGO in the USA. Aldo Leopold –He was a forest official in the US in the 1920s. –He designed the early policies on wilderness conservation and wildlife management.

89 Rachel Carson –In the 1960s Rachel Carson published several articles that caused immediate worldwide concern on the effects of pesticide on nature and mankind. –She wrote a well-known book called ‘Silent Spring’ which eventually led to a change in Government policy and public awareness. EO Wilson –An entomologist who envisioned that biological diversity was a key to human survival on earth. –He wrote ‘Diversity of Life’ in 1993, which was awarded a prize for the best book published on environmental issues. –His writings brought home to the world the risks to mankind due to man made disturbances in natural ecosystems that are leading to the rapid extinction of species at the global level.

90 17th Century has been described as the AGE OF FAITH

91 18th Century is considered as the AGE OF REASONING

92 19th Century was AGE OF PROGRESS

93 20th Century was AGE OF STRESS

94 Will 21st Century be Age of Panic or Age of Peace? We have to decide.

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