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On recent developments of ‘Diversity’

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1 On recent developments of ‘Diversity’
Prof. Dr. Steven Vertovec Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

2 On recent developments of ‘Diversity
Diversity is not what it used to be: changing social and political configurations ‘Diversity’ is diverse: changing public discourse III. Diversity of ‘diversity’: how and why IV. Conclusion

3 I. ‘Diversity is not what it used to be’
Over last 30 years or so, actual social and political configurations have changed considerably; therefore, need to re-think (in social science & public policy) concepts and approaches From (so-conceived) population segments based on class, region, and especially, large ethnic minority groups To far more complex, multiple, cross-cutting, self-identified/mobilized categories of ‘difference’

4 Ia. Immigration and ‘Super-diversity’
I. ‘Diversity is not what it used to be’ Ia. Immigration and ‘Super-diversity’ Recent global migration patterns: (A) ‘Diversification of diversity’ 1950s-70s large numbers from a few places to a few places 1980s-now small numbers from many places to many places (B) Variation in flows (by gender, human capital, age, space…) (C) Complexification of migration channels / legal statuses

5 Observations in UK Iran Somalia Albania

6 Super-diversity: Germany
Germany, in-migration 2006 Germany, Ausländer 1970

7 Migrant legal categories
[restricted] [unrestricted] [deportable] [application pending] [temporary]

8 Frankfurt 2008

9 Ib. ‘Pluralization of society’ Identity Politics / Movements
I. ‘Diversity is not what it used to be’ Ib. ‘Pluralization of society’ Identity Politics / Movements Especially since 1970s, following civil rights movement Social mobilization around discriminated collective identities based on race/ethnicity, religion, gender, sexuality, disability, age [categories claimed as ‘intrinsic’?] ‘In their wake, identity politics has become a fixture on the political landscape’ (Kenny The Politics of Identity 2004: 3)

10 Eurobarometer 2007

11 Köppel, Yan & Lüdicke 2007: Cultural Diversity Management in Deutschland hinkt hinterher
„Dies heißt, jedes Unternehmen ist gefordert, nach dem jeweiligen nationalen Rahmen sowie der lokalen Gesellschaft ein bedarfs-gerechtes Konzept von Diversity Management zu entwickeln.“

12 Ic. Combined Anti-discrimination
I. ‘Diversity is not what it used to be’ Ic. Combined Anti-discrimination EC AmsterdamTreaty Article 13 ‘Article 13 represented a quantum leap forward in the fight against discrimination at EU level in that it empowered the Community to take action to deal with discrimination on a whole new range of grounds, including racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, age, disability and sexual orientation.’ ‘…provides a more effective basis for addressing situations of multiple discrimination’ – EC Green Paper 2004, p.5

13 UK – since October 2007 Merger of Equal Opportunities Commission, the Commission for Racial Equality and the Disability Rights Commission For ‘upholding both human rights and tackling discrimination against women, ethnic minorities, the disabled or on grounds of religion, age or sexual orientation.’ Patricia Hewitt, Secretary of State for Trade and Industry: “As individuals, our identities are diverse and complex. People don't define themselves as just a woman, or black or gay and neither should our equality organisations. People and their problems should not be put in boxes.” -“multiculturalism had had its day because people now had multiple identities”

14 Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (AGG) [Antidiskriminierungsgesetz ] 2006
„Ziel des Gesetzes ist es, rassistische Diskriminierungen oder jene, die wegen der ethnischen Herkunft, des Geschlechts, der Religion oder Weltanschauung, einer Behinderung, des Alters oder der sexuellen Identität erfolgt sind, zu verhindern oder zu beseitigen. „ (§ 1 AGG)

15 II. ‘Diversity’ is diverse
A common conceptual rubric – ‘diversity’ – and a related set of discourses has arisen to single-handedly grasp and address the emergent social and political configurations Not surprisingly, ‘diversity’ has come to mean a variety of things in a variety of quarters

16 Public discourse today parallel to situation in early 1990s Multiculturalism was everywhere…
Multicultural Mathematics (1993) Medical Practice in a Multicultural Society (1988) Dance: A Multicultural Perspective (1986) Multicultural Pharmaceutical Education (1993) Counselling and Psychotherapy: A Multicultural Perspective (1993) Managing Substance Abuse in a Multicultural Society (1994) Marginality: The Key to Multicultural Theology (1995) Marketing in a Multicultural World (1995) Multiculturalism: Criminal Law (1991) Multicultural Public Relations (1995) Multicultural Manners: New Rules of Etiquette (1995)

17 Since early 2000s… Ubiquitous public criticism of (presumed) ‘Multiculturalism’ Leading to death of ‘M-word’ - But not retraction of policies ‘Integration’ is now key word - But not ‘assimilationist’ because strongly linked with ‘Diversity’

18 By 2009 Diversity is everywhere
Understanding and Managing Diversity (2008) The Diversity Scorecard: Evaluating the Impact of Diversity on Organizational Performance (2003) Global Diversity: Winning Customers and Engaging Employees Within World Markets (2006) Cultivating Diversity in Fundraising (2001) Diversity, Oppression, Change: Culturally Grounded Social Work (2008) Drama and Diversity (2000) Diversity in Counseling (2003) Diversity and the Recreation Profession (2008) Diversity in Early Care and Education(2007) Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness (2008) Intentional Diversity: Creating Cross-Cultural Relationships in Your Church (2002) Cultural Diversity: A Primer for the Human Services (2006)

19 ‘Diversity’ and Business
II. ‘Diversity’ is diverse

20 2008: Equality and Human Rights Commission, Trades Union Congress, Confederation of British Industry
“The potential rewards of diversity are significant: an organisation that recruits its staff from the widest possible pool will unleash talent and develop better understanding of its customers. It will also enable it to spot market opportunities.”

21 Diversity and Public Institutions
II. ‘Diversity’ is diverse

22 UNESCO World Report 2009 Cultural Diversity: ‘The meanings attached to this catch-all term are as varied as they are shifting.’ ‘…a new approach to cultural diversity – one that takes account of its dynamic nature and the challenges of identity associated with the permanence of cultural change.’ Shift from conservation of cultures In light of ‘general trend towards the emergence of dynamic and multifaceted identities.’

23 ‘Vielfalt’… II. ‘Diversity’ is diverse

24 “Vielfalt statt Einfalt”

25 ‘Diversity’ and German Business II. ‘Diversity’ is diverse
Süß & Kleiner 2005: Diversity-Management in Deutschland: Ergebnisse einer Unternehmensbefragung

26 III. Diversity of ‘Diversity’ discourse in policy & practice
‘promoting Diversity’ display of visible difference as equal opportunities ‘celebrating Diversity’ exhibit self-promoted cultural difference ‘managing Diversity’ maximize positive potential value difference ‘integration and Diversity’ immigrant difference is good, but within limits

27 Why/how shift to ‘diversity’?
III. Diversity of ‘Diversity’ Why/how shift to ‘diversity’? Turn against group identities (as ‘Parallel Societies’) Unwillingness to ‘essentialize’/stereotype group members Turn toward individual difference(s) / ‘multiple identities’ Individualization? Privatization? Neo-liberalism? Economic/Political efficiency? (bunching differences) Equalizing (trivializing?) all differences? Tide of ‘Rightism’? (changing mode of public recognition) Crass tokenism? Fear of lawsuits? (public expectations) Social science re-tooling around complexity -- likely: unevenly combined influence of all of these…

28 IV. Conclusion ‘Diversity’’s sheer ambivalence / multi-valence accounts greatly for its current success in public, business & academic discourse “All things to all people” Flaws, vagueness, vogueness – yes But, in light of changing socio-cultural configurations, better to have such a term, policies & programmes than not to…

29 Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity
Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung multireligiöser und multiethnischer Gesellschaften Hermann-Föge-Weg 11, D Göttingen, Germany tel. +49/ , fax +49/

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