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On recent developments of Diversity Prof. Dr. Steven Vertovec Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity.

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Presentation on theme: "On recent developments of Diversity Prof. Dr. Steven Vertovec Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 On recent developments of Diversity Prof. Dr. Steven Vertovec Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

2 On recent developments of Diversity I.Diversity is not what it used to be: changing social and political configurations II.Diversity is diverse: changing public discourse III.Diversity of diversity: how and why IV.Conclusion

3 I. Diversity is not what it used to be Over last 30 years or so, actual social and political configurations have changed considerably; therefore, need to re-think (in social science & public policy) concepts and approaches From (so-conceived) population segments based on class, region, and especially, large ethnic minority groups To far more complex, multiple, cross-cutting, self- identified/mobilized categories of difference

4 Ia. Immigration and Super-diversity Recent global migration patterns: (A) Diversification of diversity 1950s-70slarge numbers from a few places to a few places 1980s-nowsmall numbers from many places to many places (B) Variation in flows (by gender, human capital, age, space…) (C) Complexification of migration channels / legal statuses I. Diversity is not what it used to be

5 Observations in UK Iran Somalia Albania

6 Super-diversity: Germany Germany, Ausländer 1970 Germany, in-migration 2006

7 Migrant legal categories [unrestricted] [restricted] [deportable] [application pending] [temporary]

8 Frankfurt 2008

9 Ib. Pluralization of society Identity Politics / Movements Especially since 1970s, following civil rights movement Social mobilization around discriminated collective identities based on race/ethnicity, religion, gender, sexuality, disability, age [categories claimed as intrinsic?] – In their wake, identity politics has become a fixture on the political landscape (Kenny The Politics of Identity 2004: 3) I. Diversity is not what it used to be

10 Eurobarometer 2007

11 Köppel, Yan & Lüdicke 2007: Cultural Diversity Management in Deutschland hinkt hinterher – Dies heißt, jedes Unternehmen ist gefordert, nach dem jeweiligen nationalen Rahmen sowie der lokalen Gesellschaft ein bedarfs- gerechtes Konzept von Diversity Management zu entwickeln.

12 Ic. Combined Anti-discrimination EC AmsterdamTreaty Article 13 Article 13 represented a quantum leap forward in the fight against discrimination at EU level in that it empowered the Community to take action to deal with discrimination on a whole new range of grounds, including racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, age, disability and sexual orientation. …provides a more effective basis for addressing situations of multiple discrimination – EC Green Paper 2004, p.5 I. Diversity is not what it used to be

13 Merger of Equal Opportunities Commission, the Commission for Racial Equality and the Disability Rights Commission For upholding both human rights and tackling discrimination against women, ethnic minorities, the disabled or on grounds of religion, age or sexual orientation. Patricia Hewitt, Secretary of State for Trade and Industry: As individuals, our identities are diverse and complex. People don't define themselves as just a woman, or black or gay and neither should our equality organisations. People and their problems should not be put in boxes. -multiculturalism had had its day because people now had multiple identities UK – since October 2007

14 Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (AGG) [Antidiskriminierungsgesetz ] 2006 Ziel des Gesetzes ist es, rassistische Diskriminierungen oder jene, die wegen der ethnischen Herkunft, des Geschlechts, der Religion oder Weltanschauung, einer Behinderung, des Alters oder der sexuellen Identität erfolgt sind, zu verhindern oder zu beseitigen. (§ 1 AGG)

15 II. Diversity is diverse A common conceptual rubric – diversity – and a related set of discourses has arisen to single- handedly grasp and address the emergent social and political configurations Not surprisingly, diversity has come to mean a variety of things in a variety of quarters

16 Public discourse today parallel to situation in early 1990s Multiculturalism was everywhere… Multicultural Mathematics (1993) Medical Practice in a Multicultural Society (1988) Dance: A Multicultural Perspective (1986) Multicultural Pharmaceutical Education (1993) Counselling and Psychotherapy: A Multicultural Perspective (1993) Managing Substance Abuse in a Multicultural Society (1994) Marginality: The Key to Multicultural Theology (1995) Marketing in a Multicultural World (1995) Multiculturalism: Criminal Law (1991) Multicultural Public Relations (1995) Multicultural Manners: New Rules of Etiquette (1995)

17 Since early 2000s… Ubiquitous public criticism of (presumed) Multiculturalism Leading to death of M-word - But not retraction of policies Integration is now key word - But not assimilationist because strongly linked with Diversity

18 By 2009 Diversity is everywhere Understanding and Managing Diversity (2008) The Diversity Scorecard: Evaluating the Impact of Diversity on Organizational Performance (2003) Global Diversity: Winning Customers and Engaging Employees Within World Markets (2006) Cultivating Diversity in Fundraising (2001) Diversity, Oppression, Change: Culturally Grounded Social Work (2008) Drama and Diversity (2000) Diversity in Counseling (2003) Diversity and the Recreation Profession (2008) Diversity in Early Care and Education(2007) Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness (2008) Intentional Diversity: Creating Cross-Cultural Relationships in Your Church (2002) Cultural Diversity: A Primer for the Human Services (2006)

19 Diversity and Business II. Diversity is diverse

20 The potential rewards of diversity are significant: an organisation that recruits its staff from the widest possible pool will unleash talent and develop better understanding of its customers. It will also enable it to spot market opportunities. 2008: Equality and Human Rights Commission, Trades Union Congress, Confederation of British Industry

21 Diversity and Public Institutions II. Diversity is diverse

22 UNESCO World Report 2009 Cultural Diversity: The meanings attached to this catch-all term are as varied as they are shifting. …a new approach to cultural diversity – one that takes account of its dynamic nature and the challenges of identity associated with the permanence of cultural change. – Shift from conservation of cultures In light of general trend towards the emergence of dynamic and multifaceted identities.

23 Vielfalt… II. Diversity is diverse

24 Vielfalt statt Einfalt

25 Süß & Kleiner 2005: Diversity-Management in Deutschland: Ergebnisse einer Unternehmensbefragung Diversity and German Business II. Diversity is diverse

26 III. Diversity of Diversity discourse in policy & practice – promoting Diversity display of visible difference as equal opportunities – celebrating Diversity exhibit self-promoted cultural difference – managing Diversity maximize positive potential value difference – integration and Diversity immigrant difference is good, but within limits

27 Why/how shift to diversity? Turn against group identities (as Parallel Societies) – Unwillingness to essentialize/stereotype group members Turn toward individual difference(s) / multiple identities – Individualization? Privatization? Neo-liberalism? Economic/Political efficiency? (bunching differences) – Equalizing (trivializing?) all differences? Tide of Rightism? (changing mode of public recognition) Crass tokenism? Fear of lawsuits? (public expectations) Social science re-tooling around complexity -- likely: unevenly combined influence of all of these… III. Diversity of Diversity

28 IV. Conclusion Diversitys sheer ambivalence / multi-valence accounts greatly for its current success in public, business & academic discourse – All things to all people Flaws, vagueness, vogueness – yes But, in light of changing socio-cultural configurations, better to have such a term, policies & programmes than not to…

29 Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung multireligiöser und multiethnischer Gesellschaften Hermann-Föge-Weg 11, D Göttingen, Germany tel. +49/ , fax +49/

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