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Chapter 3 Forces Jumping Frogs Jumping Frog Teacher Tube

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Section 1 Newton’s Second Law A. Force and motion are connected. 1. An object will have greater acceleration if a greater force is applied to it. 2. The mass of an object and the force applied to it affect acceleration. 4

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3.1 Newton’s Second Law B. Newton’s second law of motion: Acceleration of an object is in the same direction as the net force on the object. Acceleration can be calculated by: Acceleration (in meters/second 2 ) = net force (in newtons) mass(in kilograms) a = net F m 5

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3.1 Newton’s Second Law C. Friction—force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching each other. 1.Microwelds--areas where surface bumps stick together--are the source of friction. 2. Friction between two surfaces that are not moving past each other is called static friction. 9 Friction 3.10 (MediaPlayer)

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3.1 Newton’s Second Law 3. Sliding friction –force that opposes the motion of two surfaces sliding past each other 4. Friction between a rolling object and the surface it rolls on is called rolling friction. 10

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3.1 Newton’s Second Law D. Air resistance opposes the force of gravity. 1.The amount of air resistance depends on an object’s shape, size, and speed. 2. Terminal velocity—forces on a falling object are balanced and the object falls with constant speed 11

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3.2 Gravity A. Law Of Gravitation—any two masses exert an attractive force on each other. force of gravity=mass x acceleration of gravity F = m g gravity is 9.8 m/s 2 g = 9.8 m/s 2 19 Gravity(mediaplayer) The gravitational force on a sky diver with a mass of 60 kg would be F = mg = (60kg) (9.8 m/s 2 ) = 588 N

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3.2 Gravity 1.Gravity is one of the four basic forces that also include electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force. 2.Gravity is a long-range force that gives the universe its structure. 20

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3.2 Gravity C.The gravitational force exerted on an object is called weight. Because weight on Earth is equal to the force of gravity, the weight can be calculated: weight = mass x gravity or W=mg Copy this formula to your notebook. 21

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3.2 Gravity Due to inertia, all objects fall with the same acceleration regardless of mass. Weight—gravitational force exerted on an object 1. Weight decreases as an object moves away from Earth 2. Weight results from a force. Mass is a measure of how much matter an object contains. 25

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Section 2 Gravity Objects in the space shuttle float because they have no force supporting them. Projectiles have horizontal and vertical velocities due to gravity, and follow a curved path. Acceleration toward the center of a curved path is called centripetal acceleration; it is caused by centripetal force, an unbalanced force.

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3.3 The Third Law of Motion A. Newton’s third law of motion—to every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force. 1. Action-reaction forces act on different objects and differ from balanced forces. 2. Rocket propulsion is based on Newton’s third law of motion. 29

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3.3 The Third Law of Motion B. Before it was discovered, the existence of the planet Neptune was predicted based on gravitational forces and Newton’s laws. Momentum—related to how much force is needed to change an object’s motion; momentum equals mass times velocity. Law of conservation of momentum— momentum can be transferred between objects; momentum is not lost or gained in the transfer. 30 3 rd Law 3.43 3 rd Law 3.43 Med.Player

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Calculating Momentum Momentum = mass x velocity p = m x v 41

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