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Physical Science

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1. Identify the Problem 2. Formulate Testable Hypothesis 3.Design & Conduct experiment 4.Analyze Data 5.Develop Conclusion Components of Scientific Inquiry

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Identify the Problem Make observations using five senses Collect information Develop a question you can test *A scientist observed 2 cows. One fed corn and one fed hay and one just grass. He wondered which diet affects cow growth? *Question for experiment* Which food causes the cows to grow the fastest? 1. Identify the Problem

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Observation/Research Observation/Research: Make observations and research your topic of interest.

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Could be an If/Then statement Must relate to independent and dependent variable * hypothesis* If I feed the cow only corn then it will grow the fastest. 2. Formulate a Testable Hypothesis

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List materials needed Make sure procedure is valid Experiment is not biased (one sided) Identify Variables : IV, DV, constants, control Record observations Collect Data Multiple trials 3. Design and Conduct Experiment

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2 kinds 1.Independent Variable/Manipulated Variable the factor the experimenter adjusts ( what “I” change) 2.Dependent Variable/Responding the result (data your collecting) Variables

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Constants = what needs to stay the same to make the experiment valid Control = ‘the original’ unchanged test subject that the IV is compared to Variables

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Quantitative: numbers, counting, or measuring Qualitative: Descriptive, characteristics that cannot be counted Organize data into charts, graphs and tables Identify if the data supports the hypothesis In a lab report you explain what you see in your graphs, charts and tables into complete sentences (shows your understanding of the data gathered) 4. Analyzing Data

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Qualitative: The solution was blue and turned yellow The desk tables are black The tile floor is white Quantitative: Cows weighed 500 lbs There were 3 cows A tree is 8 meters high There are 27 students in class Types of Data

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Must always have a title, axis labeled, key if needed Could be: Bar Graph, Line Graph (single or multi – line) or Pie Graphs-type of graph depends on your data Pie graphs = parts of a whole (percentages) Line graphs = changes over time Bar graphs = comparisons (usually have categories X-axis is the IV (unless multi-line) and Y-axis is the DV DRY MIX Tables and Graphs

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Clear, concise statement based on results Restate the hypothesis Accept/reject the hypothesis and explain why Communicate results Identify sources of error Determine the need for further research Over a three week period, the cow fed the corn gained more weight than the cow eating grass and the cow eating hay. Hypothesis supported. 5. Develop a Conclusion

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Materials: 3 Cows (same age, same gender, same breed) Different Types of Food: Corn and Hay Water Control – Cow eating grass Constants –age, gender, breed, size of enclosure etc. IV-food type DV-size of cows Record observations and collect data Quantitative & Qualitative Multiple trials Experiment Example

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Theory = explanation for a wide range of observations Ex: Neonatal homing in sharks, sharks will return to the place of their birth to have pups Inference = conclusion based on evidence and reasoning, “educated guess” Theory/Inference

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