Explore Angle of IncidenceAngle of Refraction 60° 50° 40° 30° 20° 10° 0°
Discuss 1.When light travels from air into acrylic, as the angle of incidence gets smaller, the angle of refraction: a)gets greater b)becomes equal c)gets smaller 2.When light travels from air into acrylic with an angle of incidence of 0º (along the normal), what happens to it? 3. When light travels from air to water at an angle of incidence greater than 0º, it is bent ______________________ the normal.
The Reappearing Coin How can we see a coin that is not in our line of sight?
Refraction Refraction is the bending of light as it moves from one medium to another All transparent materials (e.g., glass, plastic, water, diamond, etc.) refract light These materials are said to be optically dense
What causes refraction? Light refracts because light travels at different speeds in different media MediumSpeed Air (vacuum)3.00 x 10 8 m/s Water2.26 x 10 8 m/s Acrylic1.76 x 10 8 m/s
Refraction Terminology The incident ray, refracted ray, and the normal all lie in the same plane The incident ray and the refracted ray are on opposite sides of the line that separates the two media
Refraction Terminology The incident ray is the ray which meets the different medium at the “point of incidence” The refracted ray is the ray which has bent into the new medium The angle of incidence ( i) is the angle between the incident ray and the normal The angle of refraction ( R) is the angle between the refracted ray and the normal
Your turn Activity – Refraction from Air to Acrylic
Rules for Refraction 1. When travelling from a “fast” medium to a “slow” medium, light bends towards the normal
Car Analogy When the car leaves the pavement and enters the muddy surface, the tires move more slowly than they did on the pavement, causing the car to bend towards the dashed line in the diagram (normal)
Rules for Refraction 2. When travelling from a “slow” medium to a “fast” medium, light bends away from the normal
Car Analogy When the car enters the smooth pavement, the tires move more quickly than they did on the muddy surface, causing the car to bend away the dashed line in the diagram (normal)
The Broken Straw Why does the straw appear in two pieces at the waters’ surface?
The Broken Straw Light coming from the part of the straw below the surface of the water is traveling from water (more dense) to air (less dense) The speed of light is faster in air than in water, so light will bend away from the normal The human brain perceives light to travel in straight lines, so it appears to us as if the light source is behind the straw