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Afloat EW and IW Systems Topic 14 Afloat EW/IW Systems

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1 Afloat EW and IW Systems Topic 14 Afloat EW/IW Systems
A. Introduction The goal for this topic is to introduce the student to the currently fielded afloat SIGINT collection and analysis tools, including those used for ELINT and COMINT. As the nature of this topic is sensitive, the technical details that are necessary for a thorough understanding will be included in follow-on training for students with the need to know. B. Enabling Objectives STATE the currently fielded afloat Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and their basic capabilities and limitations. STATE the currently fielded afloat cryptologic systems. C. Topic Outline Afloat EW Systems Integrated Anti-ship Missile Defense AN/SLQ-32(V)5 Tactical Cryptologic Systems SSEE SSEE on DDG SSEE on LHD TRDF COBLU and Combat DF 10. Embarkable Systems 11. HITS 12. Cryptologic Systems Overview D. References 1. PMW-180 Program Management Brief dtd 30 Aug 2007 2. CV/CVN Combat System Information Book (CSIB), NAVSEA, July 2003 Topic 14 Afloat EW/IW Systems Enabling Objectives 14.1 STATE the currently fielded afloat Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and their basic capabilities and limitations. 14.2 STATE the currently fielded afloat cryptologic systems.

2 EW Systems Afloat EW Systems
Figure 14.1 – EW System. Afloat EW Systems The AN/SLQ-32(V) shipboard EW system provides electronic support and countermeasure protection for U.S. and international navies. It is the primary EW system carried by major US Navy surface ships, with more than 450 systems produced to date. The (V)1 and (V)2 suites are passive, providing early warning, identification and direction finding capability for simultaneous multiple threats. The (V)3 suite provides an additional active response for simultaneous electronic jamming and deception of multiple threats. The (V)4, an expanded version of the (V)3, is used on aircraft carriers. The (V)5, used on destroyers and frigates, integrates a passive (V)2 with active equipment called “Sidekick.” The SLQ-32(V) system has been in operation since the 1970s and ongoing efforts to restore and upgrade older systems will extend the life of the SLQ-32(V) well into the 21st century. The system achieves EW objectives by providing full threat band frequency coverage, instantaneous azimuth coverage, 100 percent probability of intercept and simultaneous response to multiple threats. It can detect aircraft search and target radars well before they detect the ship. The system’s rapid response time ensures that jamming protection is enabled to prevent long range targeting of the ship and to deceive missiles launched against the ship. The system has an on-line library of emitter types for rapid identification.

3 ASM Integrated Defense
AN/SLQ-32(V)3 AN/SLQ-32(V)5 Figure 14.2 – Integrated ASMD. Nulka Decoy Integrated Anti-ship Missile Defense The SLQ-32(V) is the core of an integrated ASM capability that employs automated threat detection and interfaces to the ship’s combat system. Rapid identification of threats are passed to Command and Decision (C&D) systems or Ship’s Self Defense Systems (SSDS) with automatic recommendations for Electronic Attack and decoy employment. In the 1980s, as a part of the Electronic Warfare Improvement Program (EWIP), the system was upgraded to Rev 17 Software with improved correlation and threat recognition features. These features will ensure that the AN/SLQ-32(V) remains the principal EW system in the fleet until the Advanced Integrated EW System (AIEWS) is introduced. One of the key features of the AN/SLQ-32 is the integration of decoy employment. The MK-36 Super Rapid Blooming Offboard Chaff (SRBOC) and the upgraded MK-53 launcher (NULKA capable) are interfaced to the SLQ-32 for quick threat reaction. An integrated algorithm selects the launcher and rounds automatically for the operator. The SH-60B Seahawk extends the detection horizon of the SLQ-32(V) by employing the AN/SRQ-4 (Hawklink) to interface the onboard AN/ALQ-142 to the SLQ-32, effectively allowing over the horizon detection and tracking capability. The Hawklink is being upgraded from C band to Ku band and data throughput is being enhanced to allow the transmission of data, video or voice. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ MK-53 Launcher MK-36 Launcher R17 Software SH-60 Seahawk

4 Figure 14.3 – SLQ-32 (V) 5 multibeam array.
The SLQ-32(V)5 features SIDEKICK active jamming capability that adapts previous features through smaller, lighter and solid-state components. The SLQ-32(V)5 provides full threat band frequency coverage, instantaneous azimuth coverage, 100 percent probability of intercept and simultaneous response to multiple threats. It can detect threat radars well before they detect the ship. The active jamming avoids long range targeting of the ship and can deceive missiles launched against the ship. The SLQ-32 also has an on-line library of emitters for rapid identification of the threat. The systems multibeam array is the key feature of the SLQ-32 product line. The system's multibeam architecture allows the ECM transmitter to produce very high noise, jamming effective radiated power (ERP), preventing burn-through of a typical targeting radar until its source is within the hard-kill envelope. Typical ant-ship missile radars will not burn-through this jamming power until they can no longer adjust their flight path sufficiently to hit the ship. The lens-fed multibeam array generates very high jamming power at continuous wave, so virtually an unlimited variety of jamming techniques can be used. Many radars of different types, and on different bearings, can be simultaneously engaged, each with a different jamming waveform. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5 GALE - Functionality Utilities Operations Movement Models
Terrain Analysis Predictive Analysis Area Limitation ELINT Analysis COMINT Analysis Situation Analysis Force Modeling Trgt Development Targeting Fusion Correlation Threat Analysis Tracking Friend/Foe Geospatial Analysis Indications & Warnings Electronic Order of Battle Theater Missile Defense Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield Situation Awareness Wargaming Mission Rehearsal Mission Planning Geospatial Information System (GIS) Battle Damage Assessment (BDA) Figure 14.4 – GALE Funtionality. GALE-Lite Generic Area Limitation Environment-Lite (GALE-LITE) is a subsystem of the Generic Area Limitation Environment (GALE) and is a client/server based analysis and exploitation system for intelligence data. It includes end-to-end processing from the reception, parsing, and storing of contact reports, through extensive interactive analysis tools and report generation. The purpose of this interface is to provide Global Command and Control System–Joint (GCCS-J)/Common Operational Picture (COP) with the capability to access and analyze the intelligence data provided by the GALE-LITE system. The key to the COP and GALE-LITE interface is the GALE-LITE Interface Segment (GLIS). GLIS will be installed on GCCS-J/COP workstations at those GCCS sites that possess and maintain a GALE-LITE system. GLIS provides the interface to a “standalone” GALE-LITE TDP processing Integrated Broadcast Service (IBS) Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) and non-SIGINT near real-time data. GLIS allows the transfer of tracks between GALE-LITE and GCCS-J extending the SIGINT analysis and data archiving capability of GCCS-J. This data interface provides for an integrated Situational Awareness, Intelligence and Warning (I&W), and COP environment improving the manual entry of significant tactical near-real-time data. GLIS is a two-way interface allowing operators to send tracks from GALE-LITE to GCCS-J and vice versa. Initial effort focuses on a manual push from one TDP to another. Future releases will allow for smart automated push from GALE-LITE to GCCS-J allowing GALE-LITE to be used as an in-line SIGINT and non-SIGINT correlator.

6 GALE-Lite Tools Functionality
Figure 14.5: GALE-Lite. Functionality GALE LITE is a UNIX/X Windows-based workstation which enables ELINT analysts to perform multiple tasks simultaneously and can store several gigabytes worth of contact reports for historical analysis. Features include: -Multiple, automatic, multi-source correlators/trackers for real-time monitoring -Audio/Visual alerts for high interest contacts -Large database storage capacity for long-term historical analysis -Rapid retrieval and efficient database structure allows for quick database search and analysis -Color graphics and flexible data coloring scheme for easy data interpretation -On-line EOB and EPL with search and overlay capability -Convolving tool for accurate location of fixed sites -OPS clock, histogram, scattergram, and other analysis tools -Capability to send graphics and information between workstations -Track animation capability -Filtering and display of operator-defined data subsets __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7 Figure 14.6 – Tactical Cryptologic Systems.
Tactical Cryptologic Systems Signals Collection, Location, and Exploitation SSEE CCOP COBLU HITS “Cryptologic-capable” Combat DF “To provide timely, relevant, integrated National and Tactical intelligence information systems and services that enable the war fighter to place weapons on target and protect our country’s interests.” T-RDF Figure 14.6 – Tactical Cryptologic Systems. Tactical Cryptologic Systems In addition to the EW equipment used to gather tactical ELINT information, strike groups have organic assets and equipment to also gather other SIGINT, including COMINT. The purpose of the tactical Cryptologic Systems program is to provide timely, relevant, integrated national and tactical intelligence information systems and services that enable the warfighter to place weapons on target and protect the country’s interest. Typically, the systems depicted in Figure 14.6 would be installed in the Ship’s Signal Exploitation Space (SSES). The SSES functions to provide the tactical commander with near real-time information regarding hostile or potentially hostile activity beyond the range of normal shipboard sensors. In addition to early warning information, it provides amplifying data on tracks already held or soon likely to be held by real-time sensors. As the majority of technical information on these systems is classified beyond the scope of this course, additional details will be included in follow-on training for some students. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8 Ship Signal Exploitation Equipment (SSEE INC E & D)
Organic to the CSG/ESG Highly sensitive signal collection system Networked with worldwide resources Provides Indications and Warning HF/VHF/UHF Direction Finding and Geolocation DF utilizing TRDF (Inc. D) Supports Force Protection Blue Water and Littoral Blue Force Monitoring National Tasking Information Superiority Provides access to information Enables speed of command Shipboard Electronic Attack (EA) capability Figure 14.7 – SSEE. Ship Signal Exploitation Equipment (SSEE) ( AN/SSQ-137V) SSEE is an evolutionary acquisition program that uses commercial off-the-shelf/non developmental item (COTS/NDI) technology as the building block to improve the tactical cryptologic and Information Warfare (IW) exploitation capability for surface combatant platforms. SSEE provides the afloat cryptologist with threat identification and analysis of Communications Intelligence (COMINT). The system is upgraded incrementally, as improvements are developed. SSEE Increment E employs the Maritime Cryptologic Strategy for the 21st century (MCS-21) concept of a single core architecture that is easily modernized and scaled in capability. Equipment Includes Receivers, RF Management Systems, Recorders, Audio Distribution Systems, Computers, Antennas and Ancillary Hardware. The system design permits the rapid insertion of new and emerging technology to address the evolving threat. The system will use generic processor technology to counteract obsolescence issues with Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technologies and provide software receivers for ease of modification to deal with known and projected exotic threat signals of interest. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

9 The Ship is the Sensor SSEE-E on USS McCain (DDG-56)
The mast-mounted antenna provides omni-directional coverage in the VHF and UHF frequency ranges. Mast Antenna Starboard SPLIT ROCK Port SPLIT ROCK Figure 14.8 – SSEE on the DDG. AVK “HF Loop” Antennas (6 total) Deck Edge Antennas provide HF coverage and are mounted on a ship’s deck or hull, encircling the ship so as to provide 360 degrees of reception. SSEE Inc. E in SSES Figure 14.9 – SSEE on the LHD.

10 Transportable Radio Direction Finding (TRDF)
Modular Narrowband carry-on Radio Direction Finding subsystem of SSEE and ACCES. Provides passive HF/VHF/UHF Direction Finding capability Low cost Direction Finding capability to various ship classes Ships pre-groomed with permanently installed antennas to support carry-on equipment Figure – TRDF. Transportable Radio Direction Finding (TRDF) TRDF is a modular narrowband carry-on radio direction finding subsystem of SSEE and ACCES (discussed later). It provides passive HF/VHF/UHF direction finding capability to various classes of ships to include LHA1, LCC, DDG, and CG. Classified system details will be provided in other training courses. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

11 Figure 14.11 – COBLU and Combat DF.
COBLU/Combat DF Cooperative OUTBOARD Logistics Upgrade (COBLU) (AN/SSQ-124) Combat DF (AN/SRS-1) Both are organic to CSG/ESG and provide: Indications and Warning Signal/Intercept Analysis HF/VHF/UHF Signal Detection HF/VHF/UHF Direction Finding Force Protection Blue Water and Littoral Networked with worldwide resources Provides access to National SIGINT sources Figure – COBLU and Combat DF. Cooperative OUTBOARD Logistics Upgrade (COBLU) COBLU is an upgrade to the Classic Organizational Unit Tactical Baseline Operational Area Radio Detection (OUTBOARD) Countermeasures Exploitation System, a US Navy shipboard direction finding system. COBLU provides the capability to detect, locate, and identify hostile targets at long- range and input this information into the ship’s tactical data system. Combat Direction Finding (Combat DF) The Navy’s CDF system is an automated long range hostile target signal acquisition and direction finding system that can detect, locate, categorize and archive data into the ship’s tactical data system. CDF provides commanders near-real-time indications and warning (I&W), situational awareness, and cueing information for targeting systems. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12 Cryptologic Carry On Program (CCOP)
Provides variety of specialized, quick reaction cryptologic capability to selected fleet units Administered by the Fleet Commander Managed locally by the Fleet Electronics Shop Mission specific cryptologic capability not incorporated in permanently installed cryptologic systems Used, in part, to validate need to expand capability into all Tactical Cryptologic Sensors Figure – Embarkable Systems. Cryptologic Carry On Program (CCOP) CCOP provides carry-on cryptoplogic exploitation capabilities for tactical surveillance, targeting, and indications and warnings (I&W). It provides passive detection, classification, tracking, interpretation and reporting of intercepted data. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

13 Hostile forces Integrated Targeting Service (HITS)
Figure – HITS concept. Hostile forces Integrated Targeting Service (HITS) HITS provides precision geolocation on RF emitters using existing communications channels and networks. It uses multiple sensor nodes located on a variety of National and Tactical platforms (Ships, Aircraft, UAVs & Space) to generate geolocation information. Coordination efforts are done via JWICS. See follow-on training documents for additional and classified information on HITS. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13

14 Systems and Capabilities
SSEE INC F SSEE INC E SSEE INC D TRDF COBLU Combat DF CCOP Hits Provides I&W X Signal Intercept Analysis HF/VHF/UHF Signal Detection HF/VHF/UHF DF Geolocation Supports Force Protection Blue Water and Littoral Blue Force monitoring National tasking Speed of Command Networked w/worldwide resources Shipboard IO capability Figure – Cryptologic Systems Overview. Figure summarizes tactical cryptologic systems employed throughout the Fleet. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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