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Published byEmil Tyler Modified over 7 years ago
SUPREME COURT CASES CASES EVERY POLITICAL SCIENCE STUDENT NEEDS TO KNOW
MARBURY V. MADISON 1803 DECISION Established the concept of Judicial Review: the Supreme court has the final authority to find acts of government unconstitutional
MCCULLOCH V. MARYLAND What happened Maryland tried to put a tax on a branch of the Bank of the US DECISION A state cannot tax a federal institution Supremacy Clause (1819)
GIBBONS V. OGDEN What happened Ogden had NY state license to ferry people from NYC to New Jersey, Gibbons also ferried people but had no state license but did have a federal coasting license DECISION The Federal government has the power over the state to regulate interstate commerce. Federal ferry license prevails over a State Ferry License (no NY monopoly)
DRED SCOTT V. SANDFORD What happened Sandford lived in Missouri (a slave state) took Dred Scott (a salve) to Illinois (a free state). Dred Scott said he was now free! DECISION States cannot deprive a person of his right to property 5 th Amendment (1857) = Dred Scot was not free and was owned by Sanford.
PLESSY V. FERGUSON What happened Plessy (1/8 of African decent) sat in white only train car, and he would not move when asked. DECISION Established the concept of “separate but equal” in public facilities:
BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION What happened Mr. Brown wanted his daughter to attend the neighborhood school, BUT she was black and the school was for white students only. DECISION Schools were desegregated. Separate is unequal. Separate but equal has no place. Integrated schools Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson
GIDEON V. WAINWRIGHT What happened Mr. Gideon charged with crime. He had no money to pay a lawyer and was found guilty. DECISION All accused persons are entitled to a lawyer, even if they cannot afford one. Right to Counsel Person must have counsel provided, regardless of the charges filed against them Gideon Rule
MIRANDA V. ARIZONA What happened Mr. Miranda was arrested but not told his right to not confess (remain silent), he signed a confession and was convicted DECISION A person must be read his or her rights before being arrested. When Ernesto Miranda was arrested and questioned and signed a confession that listed that he had “full knowledge of his legal rights”, he was not made aware of his rights to counsel and the confession was illegally gained.
MAPP V. OHIO What happened Police searched Mrs. Mapp’s house with a fake warrant and found illegal material DECISION Illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court. Illegal Evidence and Due Process Clause No illegal search and seizures applied to all states Before this rule not every state incorporated excluding evidence gained through an illegal search Exclusionary Rule
ENGEL V. VITALE What happened School board required students to say a prayer at beginning of each day DECISION A school cannot require students to pray. This court case upheld separation of church and state. Establishment Clause Eliminated prayers in school Students cannot be forced to recite a prayer because it violates their 1 st Amendment right to freedom of religion
ROE V. WADE What happened/Decision A state cannot take away a woman’s right to an abortion
BE PREPARED FOR A 10 QUESTION QUIZ!
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