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Farming SJCHS. Plants Uses of plants Food Fuel (fossil fuels, wood, biofuels) Clothing Building Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "Farming SJCHS. Plants Uses of plants Food Fuel (fossil fuels, wood, biofuels) Clothing Building Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Farming SJCHS

2 Plants Uses of plants Food Fuel (fossil fuels, wood, biofuels) Clothing Building Medicine

3 Video- Egypt: Food for a Revolution

4 Nutrition Malnutrition: A lack of specific nutrients Can occur in people who have enough food but not nutritious food Undernutrition: A lack of food

5 Nutrition FoodFunctionSource Proteins/Amino acids Growth and repair of tissue Meat, beans, fish CarbohydratesEnergyVegetables, grains FatsEnergyOils, animals Minerals/VitaminsManyFruits, vegetables, Suppliments

6 Nutrition Cereal crops: Grains used for food Cereal cropLocation grownImportance WheatTemperate regions (USA, Europe, Canada, Russia) Bread, pasta Economies depend on wheat trade Some types have protein

7 Nutrition Cereal cropLocation grownImportance Maize/CornTropical and subtropical (USA, China, Eastern Europe/Western Asia) Animal feed Fuel Nutritionally poor- lacks amino acids

8 Nutrition Cereal cropLocation grownImportance RiceChina East Asia Major source of food for East Asia Requires little post harvest processing

9 Nutrition Cereal cropLocation grownImportance SorghumArid regions (Africa, Middle East, Central America) Food Animal feed Industrial Uses

10 Nutrition Currently: 6 million people die of starvation each year 845 million are undernourshed mainly due to a lack of proteins, fats, minerals/vitamins


12 acker.aspx food-statistics-2971

13 Farming Types of Agriculture Industrialized/ High-Input: Farmers grow crops to sell High technology (machines), high input, high yield (amounts of food) Traditional/Subsistence: Farmers make only enough food for their families Low technology, low input, low yield

14 Farming ProsCons IndustrializedHigh yield (high amount of food) Foods cost less for consumers Individual families do not have to farm High technology (uses machines)- has high costs High inputs of fuel, water, fertilizer, pesticides Environmental problems

15 Video- Industrial Agriculture in the US

16 Farming First Green Revolution: 1950-1970 In developed countries Farmers started to practice industrialized agriculture Growth of monocultures (only growing 1 type of crop)

17 Farming Fertilizers After a harvest, nutrients are removed, chemical cycles are disrupted Fertilizers replace nutrients (especially nitrogen) Organic: Manure, compost Inorganic: Man-made chemicals

18 Farming Pros Increase crop yield Cons Pollute water Costly Decrease soil quality

19 Farming Pesticides: The use of chemicals to kill species that destroy crops LD50 (Lethal dose 50%): A test that determines how much of a pesticide kills 50% of a population Lower numbers means more toxic Persistence: How long chemical stays in the environment

20 Farming Pros Increase crop yield Cons Populations become resistant Costly Some have high persistence Some can affect other species than the targeted pest


22 Farming Second Green Revolution: 1967-Today In developing and developed countries Started by Norman Borlaug in Mexico

23 Farming Scientists breed specialized versions of crops that are high yielding for the climate they will be growing in Farmers in developing nations also start to use industrialized agriculture methods

24 Normal Borlaug video

25 Farming Gene Revolution: Scientists are creating genetically modified organisms (GMOs) Pros: GMOs have a higher yield, are pest resistance, grow in harsh climates (droughts), or have more nutritional value Cons: Costly, can require specific levels of water/fertilizer

26 Video- GMOs

27 Video- Factory Farms and Organic Alternatives

28 Farming Major problems with Industrial Agriculture Overuse of fertilizers, water, and pesticides Preemptive use of pesticides Soil degradation

29 Farming Sustainable farming: Using farming practices that considers the long term ability of a farm to produce food AND the health of the ecosystem around the farm Polycultures (plant different crops) Organic fertilizers Efficient use of water Conserves soil

30 Industrial Farming in India

31 Farming Fertilizers and pesticides can pollute water and harm organisms (including humans)

32 Farming Biomagnification: The concentration of a high-persistent toxic chemicals increases for organisms higher on the food chain Chemicals: Pesticides, PCBs, Mercury

33 DDT video

34 Farming Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Alternative to using large amounts of pesticides Steps: 1.Monitor crops for pests 2.Use cultivation controls (hot water, vacuum pests, remove by hand, trap) 3.Biological controls (introduce natural predators or pathogens) 4.Use small amounts of pesticides in a limited area


36 Videos- Urban Agriculture

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