Presentation on theme: "2001 Census Programme Census data and services Welcome and introduction David Martin Programme Coordinator."— Presentation transcript:
2001 Census Programme Census data and services Welcome and introduction David Martin Programme Coordinator
2001 Census Programme Overview of session Using UK census data in your research: David Martin Aggregate statistics Digital boundary data Interaction data Samples of anonymised records ONS and Scottish Longitudinal Studies
2001 Census Programme Using UK census data in your research Overview of datasets and services June 2006
2001 Census Programme Using UK census data in your research Census basics –Topic coverage Data outputs –Principal datasets –Supporting datasets Overview of programme services Registration and data access How to find out more
2001 Census Programme Topic coverage Age, sex, marital status, household structure Country of birth/ethnicity Health/disability Economic status Housing, amenities Travel to work and cars Qualifications Source: ons.gov.uk
2001 Census Programme Data outputs Principal datasets –Aggregate statistics –Boundaries –Interaction data –Microdata samples –Longitudinal data Supporting datasets –Lookup tables –Metadata
2001 Census Programme Overview of programme services Data acquisition and purchase for academic use Single online registration service provided by Census Registration Service for online resources Support for ONS and Scottish Longitudinal Studies New portal service: coming soon
2001 Census Programme Census basics Decennial data collection, most recently 29 April 2001 Most detailed and comprehensive data source for socioeconomic research Digital data series from modern censuses 1971 onwards NB national differences: England and Wales; Scotland; Northern Ireland
2001 Census Programme Registration and data access One-stop registration using Athens ID, operated jointly with ESDS Direct access to online services Some datasets require acceptance of additional special conditions Dont forget Neighbourhood Statistics, SCROL, NICA!
2001 Census Programme Registration – via Athens Complete online registration form; Agree to the End User Licence; Respond to confirmation email.
2001 Census Programme How to find out more… http ://census.ac.uk
2001 Census Programme Case studies Examples of how to make use of the census resources in your research Examples from each unit Expert staff on hand to answer questions in this session and at our display table all day
2001 Census Programme Matching and Mixing Geographically-Referenced Data using Convert Justin Hayes, Census Dissemination Unit, University of Manchester
2001 Census Programme Case Study 1 An educational researcher wishes to compare levels of school exclusion with characteristics of both the schools location, and location of residence of excluded pupils, in order to identify any relationships and determine whether school or residence location is a stronger predictor of school exclusion.
2001 Census Programme Data Sources Postcodes School locations Numbers/ages of pupils Postcodes of residence of excluded pupils Lower Level Super Output Areas (LSOAs) Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 Experian median household income 2001 Output Census Areas (OAs) 2001 Census ethnicity information NS 2001 Area Classification
2001 Census Programme Convert System Geography matching and geographical data conversion application LUTs between wide range of current and historical geographies Derived from ONS postcode directories (NSPD) New version with regular updates launching soon Potential for direct link to deprivation scores http://census.ac.uk/convert
2001 Census Programme Case Study 2 Educational researcher with PCT data wishes to convert/resample to LEAs.
2001 Census Programme Conversion Methodology A 1 C B PCTLEAproportion 1A0.2 1B0.3 1C0.5
2001 Census Programme Convert Limitations Accuracy of PD information –Geographical allocations –Address counts Assumptions –Addresses as population proxy –Homogeneously population-related conversions –Gender good, ethnicity not so good, cows/rainfall very bad Quality of conversion lookups –Boundary effects and fuzziness –LUT quality measures within Convert
2001 Census Programme ConvertGrid Integration of Convert and Casweb technologies to exploit Grid potentials Presents data from disparate datasets/geographies and combines to users choice of geography Open-access datasets with standard metadata Lets users get on with the clever stuff!
2001 Census Programme Casweb System Aggregate statistics from 1971- 81-91-2001 UK censuses Digital Boundary Data (2001 soon)
2001 Census Programme Digital boundary data from UKBORDERS University of Edinburgh Data Library
2001 Census Programme Includes the results of censuses, the surveys and records gathered about individuals by health authorities, central/local government and the service sector. Normally we are dealing with aggregated data describing a group of observations grouped by a particular Geography. Socioeconomic Data
2001 Census Programme Which Geography? Geographical space can be subdivided in many different ways and for many different purposes for the reporting of socioeconomic data (census or otherwise). Reporting geographies form intangible boundaries which differ from natural geographic features. Differences between epochs of geographies – between the 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001 census years for example.
2001 Census Programme A Hierarchy of census output geographies.
2001 Census Programme UKBORDERS United Kingdom Boundary Outline and Reference Database for Education and Research Study. Based at EDINA, University of Edinburgh. Boundary data delivered through UKBORDERS since 1996. Provides services for supporting geographic data for learning, teaching and research.
2001 Census Programme Why use UKBORDERS? Web based delivery of digitised boundary datasets and associated look-up-tables of the UK. Main group of datasets correspond to the various levels of the 1981, 1991 and 2001 census geography. Important associated datasets include current and historical postcode directories from ONS.
2001 Census Programme A key benefit is convenient access to ready-made datasets. Full on-line help is provided. Off-line support is provided through the EDINA Geo Data Services support team. Dedicated facilities provide access to these datasets, either pre-packaged or through a dynamic user driven interface.
Who uses UKBORDERS? Researchers interested in the spatial visualisation and analysis of census statistics and other socioeconomic datasets linked to census output geographies. Population Deprivation Employment Education Health Housing Crime
2001 Census Programme Researcher is interested in patterns of deprivation and access to public health services in Oxford. Has claimant data from DWP and deprivation data from ODPM reported using the lower layer Super Output Area geography. Map data using boundaries
2001 Census Programme Wants to visualise the data geographically and look for interesting patterns. Through UKBORDERS, the researcher can download Lower layer SOA boundary data for Oxford.
2001 Census Programme Background DWP Claimant Data. Provides a count of Jobseekers allowance claimants broken down by 3 age bands. ODPM deprivation data. Index of Multiple Deprivation made up from 7 weighted indices including income; employment; health & disability; education, skills & training; barriers to housing & services; crime and, living environment.
2001 Census Programme Both datasets are reported using the Lower Super Output Area (LSOA) geography. Designed by ONS to improve the reporting of small area statistics. Built from groups of Output Areas, LSOA`s have a minimum population of 1000, a mean population of 1500 and are constrained by the boundaries of census Standard Table wards.
2001 Census Programme Login to UKBORDERS requires Registration with Census Registration Service and an Athens username.
2001 Census Programme Use UKBORDERS Boundary Data Selector to extract LSOA boundary data for Oxford only.
2001 Census Programme Preview Data. Select Output Format.
2001 Census Programme Download boundary data and load into GIS
2001 Census Programme Link data to the boundaries
2001 Census Programme DWP data mapped using LSOAs
2001 Census Programme ODPM data mapped using LSOAs
2001 Census Programme Having explored the patterns in the datasets, the researcher chooses to focus on the patterns of deprivation within Oxford and explore possible associations between deprivation and access to Health care. Researcher obtains from Oxford Primary Care Trust a list of NHS dentists in the city, each of which has a postcode as part of its address. Use postcode directories
2001 Census Programme Through UKBORDERS, the researcher can download postcode directories supplied by ONS Directories provide a grid reference for each postcode and allocates each postcode to a range of geographies Holds Live and terminated postcodes Current version known as the National Statistics Postcode Directory (NSPD) and is released quarterly
2001 Census Programme Obtain latest version of ONS NSPD from UKBORDERS.
2001 Census Programme Use NSPD to assign LSOA codes and grid reference to each dental practice using its postcode. Associate ODPM Index of Multiple Deprivation Scores using the LSOA code.
2001 Census Programme Developments during 2006-11 Maintain the viability and operation of existing UKBORDERS facilities Add new datasets Improved access to postcode directories Enhanced metadata and support materials Support the proposed Census Portal
2001 Census Programme Interaction data from the Census Interaction Data Unit (CIDS) Universities of Leeds and St Andrews
2001 Census Programme What are Census interaction data? Interaction data include: - Special Migration Statistics (SMS) - Special Workplace Statistics (SWS) - Special Travel Statistics (STS) Flow data involving two geographies: origins and destinations Extremely rich data sets for use by researchers and practitioners Especially valuable because of lack of alternative data sources, especially below district scale
2001 Census Programme Research questions? MIGRATION What are the key patterns of migration in the UK at different spatial scales: north-south, inter-regional, counterurbanisation, within cities, within small localities...? How do migration propensities and patterns vary by age, sex, ethnicity, occupation,….? Does the urban exodus from larger cities involve the loss of those with more skills and higher social status? (see Champion et al., 2006, report for JRF) Is there any evidence of linkage between patterns of immigration and internal migration and by ethnic group in the UK? (see Stillwell, 2005, paper at BSPS)
2001 Census Programme Research questions? COMMUTING What differences exist in the patterns of commuting to workplace areas by age, sex, mode of travel… ? How extensive has working from home become? How can the SWS be used to define functional urban areas or daily urban systems, i.e. travel-to-work areas? (see work of Coombes et al. at CURDS on definition of functional regions/TTWAs) What are the environmental implications of work travel? (see Frost et al., 1997 on estimation of energy consumption involved in commuting)
2001 Census Programme Simple scenario Assume researcher who wants to: find out how many people migrated to Oxford in 2000-01 and which districts of the UK they came from know the 5 year age breakdown of migration flows from rest of England to Oxford in 2000-01 by sex Both these queries require migration data from 2001 Census SMS
2001 Census Programme Overview: CIDS data holdings TypeMigrationCommuting 2001 RawSMS (Levels 1, 2, 3)SWS, STS (Levels 1, 2, 3) 1991 RawSMS (Sets 1 and 2), Table 100SWS (Sets A, B, C) DerivedMIGPOP, SMSGAPS DerivedSMS Set 1 for 2001 areasSWS Set C for 2001 areas 1981 RawSMS Set 2 (County and region)SWS Set C (County and region) DerivedSMS Set 2 for 2001 areasSWS Set C for 2001 areas DerivedSMS Set 2 for 1991 areasSWS Set C for 1991 areas
2001 Census Programme Levels are the geographical units used in 2001 SMS/SWS/STS CountryLevel 1Level 2Level 3 EnglandLondon Boroughs (33), Metropolitan Districts (36), Unitary Authorities (46), Other Local Authorities (239) CAS wards (7,969)Output areas (165,665) WalesUnitary Authorities (22)CAS wards ( 881)Output areas (9,769) ScotlandCouncil Areas (32)ST wards ( 1,176)Output areas (42,604) Northern Ireland Parliamentary Constituencies (18) CAS wards (582 )Output areas (5,022) TotalDistricts (426)Interaction wards (10,608) Output areas (223,060)
2001 Census Programme Access to these data Registered users throughout the UK access the origin-destination statistics via an online access system called: Web-based Interface to Census Interaction Data (WICID) developed by Oliver Duke-Williams (University of Leeds)
2001 Census Programme WICID: How does it work? Interactive interface that allows users to construct queries that extract the required data from the database Users need to specify which origins and destinations and which census variables they require One of the most powerful features of the system is that users can choose different sets of origins and destinations at different spatial scales
2001 Census Programme / CIDS homepage: http://cids.census.ac.uk /
2001 Census Programme WICID general query interface See paper in Environment and Planning A (2003) for further details
2001 Census Programme Selection of origins or destinations Users confronted with a set of alternative tools
2001 Census Programme Map selection window WICID uses Post GIS extended PostgresSQL database and MapServer library components
2001 Census Programme Example query 1 Use Quick selection to select all 426 districts at level 1 as origins Use List selection select Oxford district as destination Use SMS 2001 Census at level 1 and select Total Migrants 1.User wants to find out how many people migrated to Oxford in 2000-01 and where they came from Can then map the data WICID query
2001 Census Programme Inflows to Oxford from districts in the rest of the UK
2001 Census Programme Example query 2 2. User wants to find out what is the 5 year age breakdown of migration flows from rest of England to Oxford in 2000-01 by sex Can then graph the data Select two origins: England and Oxford Select one destination: Oxford Select variables from Table 1 2001 SMS level 1: Migrants by age and sex Derive new variables for 0-4, 10-14 and 15-19 age groups
2001 Census Programme Migrants to Oxford from rest of England and those within Oxford by age, 2000-01
2001 Census Programme Extensions: analysis tools Some basic statistics Suite of indicators Some of which require additional data: e.g. - distances - populations at risk Assembly of PARs is currently underway for 2001 data sets: needs specially commissioned counts for some variables
2001 Census Programme Migration effectiveness by ethnic group for regions, 2000-01
2001 Census Programme Need to understand the data Particularly when making comparisons between 1991 and 2001 because of: Changing definition of variables e.g. new categorizations of variables; inclusion of students Different measurement and adjustment of counts e.g. infants; underenumeration; migrants with unstated origins; migrants with no fixed address; SCAM adjustment of counts for confidentiality Inconsistency in geographical areas e.g. no migration data for Northern Ireland in 1990-91; local government re-organisation during the 1990s
2001 Census Programme CIDS becomes CIDER Centre for Interaction Data Estimation and Research from 1 August 2006 Funded by ESRC for next 5 years (to 2011) Aims to continue delivery of a high quality service Need to redesign WICID database structure and develop user interface
2001 Census Programme Other CIDER objectives To gather/estimate further UK census- based data sets (e.g. commissioned tables, SOA-SOA flows) To expand WICID to include UK non- census data sets (e.g. from NHSCR, patient registers, HESA) To provide training, to upgrade documentation and to disseminate To advise on 2011 Census and prepare for inclusion of interaction data sets in WICID
2001 Census Programme CIDS is funded by the ESRC/JISC under Census Programme Research Grant H507255177 CIDER is funded by the ESRC under Census Programme Research Grant RES-348-25-0005 Acknowledgement
2001 Census Programme Samples of anonymised records from the Centre for Census and Survey Research (CCSR) University of Manchester
2001 Census Programme Samples of Anonymised Records from the 2001 Census Cathie Marsh Centre for Census and Survey Research Five different microdata files with varying amounts of detail Three different modes of access With level of security related to the level of detail in the data
2001 Census Programme Individual SAR 3% sample of individuals from UK 1.84 million records All census variables present Lowest geography – GOR Access –End User Licence (via Athens for academics –Do not attempt to identify anyone –Do not pass on data to unregistered individual
2001 Census Programme Controlled Access Individual SAR 3% sample of individuals from UK 1.84 million records All census variables present with very great detail Lowest geography – LA Access –Only within 4 ONS offices –Rigorous application procedure by ONS –Careful vetting of outputs by ONS
2001 Census Programme Household SAR 1% sample of households, E & W only 225K Households; 525K individuals All census variables present No geography Individuals linked within household Access –Special Licence - administered by UKDA –More restrictive than EUL, eg cannot use on laptop –Applications need approval by ONS
2001 Census Programme Same sample as SL-Household SAR, but also contains Scotland and NI All census variables present with very great detail Lowest geography – LA Access –Only within 4 ONS offices –Rigorous application procedure by ONS –Careful vetting of outputs by ONS Controlled Access Household SAR
2001 Census Programme Small Area Microdata (SAM) 5% sample of Individuals from UK 2.96 million records Most census variables present – restricted detail Lowest geography – LA Access – End User Licence (via Athens for academics) –Do not attempt to identify anyone –Do not pass on data to unregistered individual
2001 Census Programme Impact of age, sex, qualifications and country of birth on economic activity (source DWP Research Report 333)
2001 Census Programme Impact of age, sex, qualifications and country of birth on economic activity (source DWP Research Report 333
2001 Census Programme Ethnic penalties on women's economic activity (source DWP Research Report 333
2001 Census Programme Ethnic penalties on mens unemployment (source DWP Research Report 333
2001 Census Programme Couples ethnic homogeneity: Household SAR (non-UK born)
2001 Census Programme Couples ethnic homogeneity: Household SAR (UK born)
2001 Census Programme ONS and Scottish Longitudinal Studies Emily Grundy, Julian Buxton and Chris Marshall – CeLSIUS and Paul Boyle - SLS Longitudinal Studies Centre – Scotland Home of the Scottish Longitudinal Study Centre for Longitudinal Study Information and User Support, LSHTM
2001 Census Programme What is the ONS Longitudinal Study? Record linkage study of 1% sample of population of England & Wales Started with 1971 Census, updated with immigrants and new births Follows individuals over time; at each census point also includes information on members of their households Contains data from the censuses and vital registration systems Exit from LS by death or emigration (also some lost to follow-up) Dataset contains over 30 years of follow-up (1971-2004)
Study Structure 1971 Original sample: 530,000; selected from 1971 Census 1981 536,000 sample members found at 1981 Census 1991 543,000 sample members found at 1991 Census 2001 545,894 sample members found at 2001 Census Plus members of household EntrantsNew Births 214,000Immigrants 107,000Deaths 189,000Embarkations 30,000 Births to sample women 201,000 Events 1971 - 2001Widow(er)hoods 66,000 Cancer registrations 70,000
2001 Census Programme CeLSIUS We provide: Online resources Advice and training Help with specifying data extracts Data extracts (secure) for users to analyse at their own site – data is ready to analyse/and or tabulate Help with analyses within the ONS safe setting
2001 Census Programme How to access LS data and how CeLSIUS can help Researcher has idea Looks at CeLSIUS web site for detailed information on the data, training modules etc –http://www.celsius.lshtm.ac.uk/ Contacts CeLSIUS who help with queries and application Project approved, CeLSIUS access data in safe setting & provide outputs for researcher Clearance procedure for publications
2001 Census Programme Longitudinal Studies Research Question (Example 1) Project: How much association is there between the Social Class of mid life adults and the Social Class of their parents?
2001 Census Programme Longitudinal Studies What LS data would allow you to answer the research question? Social Class of LS members aged 36-45 in 2001 – these sample members were aged 6- 15 in 1971 and so nearly all were then living with a parent We can find the parent(s) Social Class in 1971 from the information of people then in the same household as the LS member
2001 Census Programme Longitudinal Studies Issues to consider in analysis: What variables to use – Social Class in 1971 needs Social Class in 2001 – this measure (Registrar Generals Social Class) has now been replaced by NS-SEC – but data in the LS have been coded to both (some approximation). How to treat missing (imputed) values Study sample: for this need people in the LS in 1971 and 2001 – so exclude people who entered the sample after 1971 or those who left it before 2001. Whose Social Class – Here in a two parent household, we use the social class of the parent with the occupation with the highest social class grading Sub-group analysis (e.g. minority ethnic groups) – are sample sizes large enough?
Social Class of LS members aged 36-45 in 2001 by Social Class of parent in 1971 (All)
2001 Census Programme Social Class of Male LS members aged 36-45 in 2001, who lived with 2 parents in 1971, by parents Social Class
Social class of LS females aged 36-45 in 2001, who lived with 2 parents in 1971, by parents social class
2001 Census Programme Inter-generational transmission of social class Among those who lived with two parents in 1971: 59 per cent of men and 42 per cent of women with a parent in a professional/managerial job, were themselves professionals or managers. for those with parent(s) in partly skilled or unskilled jobs in 1971, the corresponding figures were 27 and 22 per cent
2001 Census Programme Longitudinal Studies Research Question (Example 2) How have city populations been affected by in and out migration ? In this example we look at Inner London and at Liverpool.
2001 Census Programme Longitudinal Studies Issues to consider in analysis: At what level to carry out analysis (region, county, county district) Consistency of geography – Standard region v Government Office Region Scotland (ONS LS doesnt capture migrants to and from Scotland) Loss to follow-up
2001 Census Programme Longitudinal Studies What data do you need to answer the research question? Nationally representative sample Usual address at 1991 (using administrative boundaries) Usual address at 2001 (using administrative boundaries) Consistency of geography between the two time points
2001 Census Programme Inter-regional migration 1991-2001
2001 Census Programme Intercensal migration and the population of Liverpool
2001 Census Programme Longitudinal Studies www.celsius.lshtm.ac.uk A Free service for UK academic users General enquiries: firstname.lastname@example.org 020 7299 4634 Emily GrundyAndy Sloggett Julian Buxton Christopher Marshall Rachel StuchburyJo Tomlinson
2001 Census Programme How to find out more… http ://census.ac.uk