Presentation on theme: "Spatial differences in the attainment of ethnic minorities ESRC Methods Festival 2006 Ludi Simpson, University of Manchester, CCSR Using a database commissioned."— Presentation transcript:
Spatial differences in the attainment of ethnic minorities ESRC Methods Festival 2006 Ludi Simpson, University of Manchester, CCSR Using a database commissioned by the Department of Work and Pensions
Males 25-74 % employed (excluding retired) Diverse neighbourhoods (less than 50% White Briton) Mixed neighbourhoods (50-87% White Briton Unmixed neighbourhoods (87%+ White Briton) 73.381.083.0 How do neighbourhood labour market outcomes vary? Is place determining: ethnic minority outcomes are relatively poor because they live in places with poor opportunities (postcode discrimination; too many people chasing jobs; …) Is race determining: ethnic minorities fare worse wherever they are (racial discrimination; poor qualifications) Which is the more important impact: place, race, qualifications, age, sex…
Males 25-74 % employed DiverseMixedUnmixed England and Wales White Briton78.383.483.5 All73.381.083.082.5 Indian79.280.983.182.1 Chinese74.476.081.279.4 Irish68.874.476.374.9 Caribbean66.570.772.170.7 African67.268.469.068.5 Pakistani64.166.768.567.8 Bangladeshi55.562.466.163.2
Employment rates (persons) England and Wales and extreme neighbourhoods Englan d &Sparkbrook Midddlesbrough East Reading North East Ethnic group Wales %N%N%N White Briton75.054.97,62949.428,86684.029,998 Irish70.147.51,03633.322283.4481 Caribbean66.555.02,05051.95277.8374 Indian66.047.52,00156.425778.5834 Chinese58.348.812338.09265.5200 African56.939.135846.815466.7192 Pakistani42.732.316,54737.81,90357.7567 Bangladeshi39.533.23,38048.02571.421 All groups73.140.336,44248.1 32,68582.234,726 Source, 2001 Census. N: population aged 16-74, excluding retired. Why are Bangladeshis more employed, only in Middlesbrough? Qualifications? Middlesbrough? Age-sex-birthplace composition? Is such a small population important?
Calculation of jobs deficit from employment rates and population denominators England &Midddlesbrough EastJobs deficit Ethnic group Wales %N Ref: national Ref: national eth Pakistani42.737.81,90367293 Bangladeshi39.548.02560 All groups73.148.1 32,685 How many more jobs are required to bring the employment rate up to a reference value Pakistani jobs deficit in Middlesbrough with reference the national rate = (73.1 - 37.8) * 1,903 = 672 Sum over all neighbourhoods in England and Wales Express as a proportion of the existing workforce
Jobs deficit How many more jobs required to bring employment rate up to a reference value Reference employment rate : –National –National for that ethnic group –Expectation for same age, sex, birthplace composition as locally –Expectation for same qualifications as locally –Expectation for same age, sex, birthplace, and qualifications composition as locally See DWP report for calculation of expectations
Census data that help to answer Local labour markets and ethnic minorities –England, Wales and Scotland –1991, 2001 –1138 tracts of 30,00-50,000 population –Standard census tables ST108, ST153 and others Age x sex x ethnic group x economic position Age x ethnic group x qualifications –Commissioned tables C0333, C0334 Age x sex x birthplace x ethnic group x qualifications x economic position –Samples of anonymised records?
Total local jobs deficit, England and Wales Reference: England and Wales rate, 73.1% Reference: England and Wales ethnic group rate Reference: Local rate expected from ethnic group and composition Ethnic group Working age (1) Jobs deficit % of (1) Jobs deficit% of (1) Jobs deficit% of (1) White Briton28,130,382567,5582.0% 760,9662.7%579,1902.1% Irish436,13723,0755.3%16,3413.7% 13,1313.0% Caribbean384,61729,8167.8%14,0053.6%11,1832.9% Indian723,85556,3717.8%25,9823.6%16,6472.3% Chinese170,08526,89215.8%10,5396.2%6,6463.9% African323,00653,25916.5%10,7473.3%7,7862.4% Pakistani436,459133,30230.5%14,7753.4%8,3221.9% Bangladeshi163,40255,31833.9% 6,1953.8%4,2462.6% Total32,486,751 1,132,91 83.5% 932,2052.9% 707,9282.2%
Jobs deficit, per cent of each groups population of working age
Qualifications 25-34 % with first degree or higher DiverseMixedUnmixed England and Wales Chinese70.068.556.562.8 Indian45.646.949.449.2 Irish45.747.543.645.6 African42.046.146.445.4 All44.137.624.528.9 Pakistani27.028.524.327.7 Caribbean25.226.925.926.4 White Briton49.634.122.625.8 Bangladeshi17.321.616.119.0
Conclusions Employment rates vary between ethnic groups, areas, demographic and degrees of human capital Ethnic group differences are systematic across areas –Explains most of the differences between areas –Age and sex composition, human capital and birthplace account for some area differences –We have not proved that social policy should focus on discrimination as well as human capital, but it looks that way Area effects are correlated between ethnic groups, but each group retains a unique geography of labour market outcomes –These uniquenesses are also of interest to sociologists than social policy