Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Filip Agneessens Department of Sociology, Ghent University Different theories and measures of social capital: Application in a knowledge-intensive work.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Filip Agneessens Department of Sociology, Ghent University Different theories and measures of social capital: Application in a knowledge-intensive work."— Presentation transcript:

1 Filip Agneessens Department of Sociology, Ghent University Different theories and measures of social capital: Application in a knowledge-intensive work environment 1 Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford

2 Social capital and knowledge-intensive work Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 2 A number of evolutions: –growing computerization, –increasing technologically complex worksituation –multifunctional job description –increase in knowledge => increasingly difficult for a person to possess all the necessary knowledge at all times - increasing division of expertise, skills and information between employees Increasing importance of exchange of information and collaboration = social relations between colleagues AIM: The importance of social relations for the explanation of differences in performance of employees

3 Social capital Social structure is a kind of capital that can create for certain individuals or groups a competitive advantage in pursuing their ends. Better connected people enjoy higher returns. (Burt, 2000: 32) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 3 Social relations => «social capital» literature -General concept with broad field of applications Focus on «social structure» competitive advantage => here: performance Result of better connected…

4 Social capital: dimensions Discussion about: -1) how does social capital emerge? -2) what structural properties should we consider? Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 4 But … when is someone beter connected?

5 Social capital: dimension 1 QUESTION 1: How does social capital emerge? Relations between people emerge: -Active creation of social relations by actors -Intentional aimed at improving performance (specific aim) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 5 Or: -Passive created social relations (by others) -Or active, but aimed at other aims than improving performance

6 QUESTION 2: What aspects of the social structure are important? EGO The importance of the relations themselves Have lots of contacts EGO The importance of the characteristics of the people one is connected with contacts with the « right » persons (sources, norms, ideas, …) EGO The importance of the larger structure between the persons one is connected to Underlying structure of persons one is connected with EGO Social capital: dimension 2 Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 6

7 Social capital: dimensions and approaches Dimension 1: -Active and intentional = « instrumental » -Passive and/or not-intentional = « embedded » Dimension 2: -Relations -Characteristics -Structure When we combine both dimensions we obtain 6 general approaches (ideal-typology): Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 7

8 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 8 Active and purposive strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not (originally) aimed at improving performance Tie- approach Relations Alter- approach Characterist ics Structural approach Structure A. Advice D. (shared) normsC. Resourceful alters E. Open structures F. Closed structures B. Trust, conflict, friendship, social support

9 Data Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 9

10 Network boundary and data Network dataset and boundary company of 70 lawyers (Lazega, 2001) Survey Advice, friendship and collaboration Partners and associates Seniority 3 places Performance Amount of dollars « gained » Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 10

11 Human capital model Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 11

12 Human capital model Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 12 BetaVIF Seniority 0,673***1,299 Office II 0,217**1,065 Office III -0,0151,117 Litigation -0,0991,040 Gender 0,1411,153 Law School 2 -0,0542,149 Law School 3 -0,0362,117 R² = 0.614

13 A: TIE-approach: advice Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 13

14 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 14 Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie- approach Relations Alter- approach Characterist ics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetters «weak ties»)

15 TIE-approach: advice Being asked for advice by colleagues (indegree) Positive effect selection? Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 15 Ask advice to others (outdegree) No effect reason?

16 Tie model Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 16 BetaVIF Seniority0,521***1,654 Office II0,274***1,104 Office III0,0751,230 Litigation-0,143*1,061 Gender0,0531,237 Law School 20,0232,214 Law School 3-0,0082,126 Indegree Advice0,0311,142 Outdegree Advice0,382***1,648 R² = (R² = for model with advice outdegree only)

17 TIE-approach: advice Explanations for absence of positive effect of advice-seeking: EXPL 1: information from whom? alter-approach Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 17 EXPL 2: How useful (unique) is the information? structural approach EXPL 3: How do other relations help/hinder the advice seeking? influence of other relations (= indirect effect) = tie approach EXPL 4: What is done with the information? Interaction with broader context (other relations) = tie approach

18 B: TIE-approach: other relations Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 18

19 Tie model Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 19 BetaVIFBetaVIF Seniority0,521***1,6540,527***1,711 Office II0,274***1,1040,264***1,171 Office III0,0751,2300,0651,347 Litigation-0,143*1,061-0,145°1,164 Gender0,0531,2370,0481,351 Law School 20,0232,2140,0272,231 Law School 3-0,0082,1260,0162,331 Indegree Advice0,0311,1420,0441,622 Outdegree Advice0,382***1,6480,406***2,388 Indegree Friend-0,0523,153 Outdegree Friend-0,0443,042 Multiplexity Advice-Friend0,0422,735 R² = and (R² = for model with advice outdegree only)

20 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 20 Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie- approach Relations Alter- approach Characterist ics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetters «weak ties») B. Consequences of embeddedness in social networks => social support, friendship… (e.g. Krackhardts «philos»)

21 TIE-approach: friendship FRIENDSHIP Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 21 No indirect effect through advice (causality?) performance others friends No effect of considering others more often as friends Ask advice to others performance Consider other friends No effect of considering more others friends on advice

22 TIE-approach: friendship Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 22 Interaction-effect: Friendship and advice adviceperformance friendship No effect No social aspects that improve trust of information asked

23 C: ALTER-approach: resources Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 23

24 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 24 Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie- approach Relations Alter- approach Characterist ics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetters «weak ties») C. Strategic choice of specific alters => Importance of sources (Diversity) (e.g. Burt, 1983 social circles) B. Consequences of embeddedness in social networks => social support, friendship… (e.g. Krackhardts «philos»)

25 ALTER-approach: resources Importance of asking advice from: Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 25 > 1) Persons who have lots of resources (hierarchy = gray) > 2) Persons who have resources that are complementary to ones own resources (ego) (complementarity) > OR 3) Persons who differ between each other in the type of resources (diversiteit) Positive effect Negative effect (similar = +) No effect

26 Advice model Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 26 BetaVIF Seniority0,451***2,090 Office II0,193*1,096 Office III0,0071,178 Litigation-0,0641,192 Gender0,0891,286 Law School 2-0,0042,371 Law School 30,0182,350 Outdegree Advice0,0421,134 Alter Outdegree Advice¹0,236*2,083 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Advice¹-0,258**1,546 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Advice¹0,0861,544 R² = (R² = for model with advice outdegree only)

27 D: ALTER-approach: norms Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 27

28 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 28 Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie- approach Relations Alter- approach Characterist ics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetters «weak ties») D. Shared norms, expectations, ideas => Consequence of homophily (e.g. Krackhardts Simmilian ties) C. Strategic choice of specific alters => Importance of sources (Diversity) (e.g. Burt, 1983 social circles) B. Consequences of embeddedness in social networks => social support, friendship… (e.g. Krackhardts «philos»)

29 ALTER-approach: norms Importance of being friends with: Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 29 > 1) Persons who have specific (beneficial) norms < 2) Persons who have similar norms to ego (similariteit) < OR 3) Persons who have consistent (same) norms between each other (consistency) Negative effect (=> friends with associate better) No effect

30 Friendship model Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 30 BetaVIF Seniority0,577***1,788 Office II0,195*1,195 Office III0,0031,352 Litigation-0,0761,184 Gender0,1001,294 Law School 2-0,0152,235 Law School 30,0132,248 Outdegree Friend0,0641,168 Alter Outdegree Friend¹-0,257**1,473 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Friend¹-0,0512,694 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Friend¹0,0292,742 R² = (R² = for model with advice outdegree only)

31 E: Structural approach: open structures Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 31

32 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 32 Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie- approach Relations Alter- approach Characterist ics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetters «weak ties») D. Shared norms, expectations, ideas => Consequence of homophily (e.g. Krackhardts Simmilian ties) C. Strategic choice of specific alters => Importance of sources (Diversity) (e.g. Burt, 1983 social circles) E. Strategic choice of relations with others that are less connected => Open structures (e.g. Burts «Structural holes») B. Consequences of embeddedness in social networks => social support, friendship… (e.g. Krackhardts «philos»)

33 Structural approach: open Open structures: Ask advice from persons that do not ask each other for advice Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 33 EGO -More unique information -Use unique position No effect (advice or friendship)

34 F: Structural approach: closed structures Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 34

35 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 35 Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie- approach Relations Alter- approach Characterist ics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetters «weak ties») D. Shared norms, expectations, ideas => Consequence of homophily (e.g. Krackhardts Simmilian ties) C. Strategic choice of specific alters => Importance of sources (Diversity) (e.g. Burt, 1983 social circles) E. Strategic choice of relations with others that are less connected => Open structures (e.g. Burts «Structural holes») F. Relations with persons who are connected to each other => Closed structures (e.g. «closure» - Coleman, 1988) B. Consequences of embeddedness in social networks => social support, friendship… (e.g. Krackhardts «philos»)

36 Structural approach: closure -Trust/dependence -Complex info -No new, simple information (same info from different persons) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 36 EGO Closed structures: Friends to people that are themselves friends Negative effect of closed triades for friendship Strong internal relations Control about what is acceptable (expectations) Reduces possibilities for asking advice from outside group

37 Advice model Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 37 BetaVIFBetaVIF Seniority0,451***2,0900,437***2,178 Office II0,193*1,0960,207**1,135 Office III0,0071,1780,0131,190 Litigation-0,0641,192-0,0651,355 Gender0,0891,2860,0901,287 Law School 2-0,0042,3710,0032,387 Law School 30,0182,3500,0082,399 Outdegree Advice0,0421,1340,0421,136 Alter Outdegree Advice¹0,236*2,0830,248*2,424 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Advice¹-0,258**1,546-0,302**2,044 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Advice¹0,0861,5440,2276,357 Closed Advice triads¹0,0381,668 Open Advice triads¹-0,1545,475 R² = and (R² = for model with advice outdegree only)

38 Friendship model Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 38 BetaVIFBetaVIF Seniority0,577***1,7880,625***1,904 Office II0,195*1,1950,191*1,208 Office III0,0031,3520,0341,462 Litigation-0,0761,184-0,0441,262 Gender0,1001,2940,0811,323 Law School 2-0,0152,2350,0382,338 Law School 30,0132,2480,0942,526 Outdegree Friend0,0641,1680,0651,174 Alter Outdegree Friend¹-0,257**1,473-0,350***1,801 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Friend¹-0,0512,694-0,1544,512 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Friend¹0,0292,7420,1406,635 Closed Friend triads¹-0,229*1,990 Open Friend triads¹0,0442,366 R² = and (R² = for model with advice outdegree only)

39 Friendship and advice model Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 39 BetaVIFBetaVIF Outdegree Advice0,0531,5150,0621,588 Outdegree Friend-0,0111,732-0,0031,938 Alter Outdegree Advice¹0,210°2,3580,1793,081 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Advice¹-0,196°2,355-0,1763,823 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Advice¹0,0911,7240,2386,889 Alter Outdegree Advice¹-0,1132,567-0,2414,011 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Friend¹-0,0242,861-0,0635,568 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Friend¹0,0352,9620,0317,552 Closed Advice triads¹0,0741,847 Open Advice triads¹-0,1516,140 Closed Friend triads¹-0,1732,726 Open Friend triads¹0,1002,685 R² = and (R² = and for model without and with outdegree)

40 Conclusions Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 40

41 Conclusion 6 approaches to the measurement of individual social capital Most important findings: Being asked for advice positively related to performance, but possibly selection-effect -Friendship (no direct effect) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 41

42 Conclusion Most important findings: In general: asking advice not related to performance BUT… Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 42 -Choosing specific others important: –Advice relations with alters that are hierarchically higher: (+) –Advice relations with alters similar in hierarchy: (+) -Friendship with associate (+) -Closed structures friendship (-)

43 Aantal beperkingen: Geen kennis over soort informatie en de bruikbaarheid -Validation/confirmation/new information/… -Wat doen mensen met de info? Conclusions Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 43 Limitations: No knowledge of type of advice -Validation/confirmation/new information/… -Application of advice? Causality (multicollinearity!) => longitudinal -Selection or influence? -Consequences of other relations? -Types of structures related (centrality, closure, resourcefulness) => How? Causality? Advice from outside? -Limiting of strong ties…

44 Conclusion THE END Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherines College Oxford 44


Download ppt "Filip Agneessens Department of Sociology, Ghent University Different theories and measures of social capital: Application in a knowledge-intensive work."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google