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Different theories and measures of social capital:

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1 Different theories and measures of social capital:
Application in a knowledge-intensive work environment Filip Agneessens Department of Sociology, Ghent University Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 1

2 Social capital and knowledge-intensive work
A number of evolutions: growing computerization, increasing technologically complex worksituation multifunctional job description increase in knowledge => increasingly difficult for a person to possess all the necessary knowledge at all times - increasing division of expertise, skills and information between employees Increasing importance of exchange of information and collaboration = social relations between colleagues AIM: The importance of social relations for the explanation of differences in performance of employees Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 2

3 Social capital Social relations => «social capital» literature
General concept with broad field of applications “Social structure is a kind of capital that can create for certain individuals or groups a competitive advantage in pursuing their ends. Better connected people enjoy higher returns”. (Burt, 2000: 32) Focus on «social structure» “competitive advantage” => here: performance Result of “better connected”… Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 3

4 Social capital: dimensions
But … when is someone “beter connected”? Discussion about: 1) how does social capital emerge? 2) what structural properties should we consider? Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 4

5 Social capital: dimension 1
QUESTION 1: How does social capital emerge? Relations between people emerge: Active creation of social relations by actors Intentional aimed at improving performance (specific aim) Or: Passive created social relations (by others) Or active, but aimed at other aims than improving performance Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 5

6 Social capital: dimension 2
QUESTION 2: What aspects of the social structure are important? The importance of the larger structure between the persons one is connected to Underlying structure of persons one is connected with EGO The importance of the characteristics of the people one is connected with contacts with the « right » persons (sources, norms, ideas, …) EGO The importance of the relations themselves Have lots of contacts EGO EGO EGO Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 6

7 Social capital: dimensions and approaches
Active and intentional = « instrumental » Passive and/or not-intentional = « embedded » Dimension 2: Relations Characteristics Structure When we combine both dimensions we obtain 6 general approaches (ideal-typology): Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 7

8 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches
Active and purposive strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not (originally) aimed at improving performance Tie-approach Relations Alter-approach Characteristics Structural approach Structure B. Trust, conflict, friendship, social support A. Advice C. Resourceful alters D. (shared) norms E. Open structures F. Closed structures Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 8

9 Data Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 9

10 Network boundary and data
Network dataset and boundary company of 70 lawyers (Lazega, 2001) Survey Advice, friendship and collaboration Partners and associates Seniority 3 places Performance Amount of dollars « gained » Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 10

11 Human capital model Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 11

12 “Human capital” model Beta VIF Seniority 0,673 *** 1,299 Office II
0,217 ** 1,065 Office III -0,015 1,117 Litigation -0,099 1,040 Gender 0,141 1,153 Law School 2 -0,054 2,149 Law School 3 -0,036 2,117 R² = 0.614 Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 12

13 A: TIE-approach: advice
Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 13

14 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches
Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie-approach Relations Alter-approach Characteristics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetter’s «weak ties») Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 14

15 TIE-approach: advice Being asked for advice by colleagues (indegree)
Positive effect selection? Ask advice to others (outdegree) No effect reason? Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 15

16 Tie model R² = 0.709 (R² = 0.620 for model with advice outdegree only)
Beta VIF Seniority 0,521 *** 1,654 Office II 0,274 1,104 Office III 0,075 1,230 Litigation -0,143 * 1,061 Gender 0,053 1,237 Law School 2 0,023 2,214 Law School 3 -0,008 2,126 Indegree Advice 0,031 1,142 Outdegree Advice 0,382 1,648 R² = (R² = for model with advice outdegree only) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 16

17 TIE-approach: advice Explanations for absence of positive effect of advice-seeking: EXPL 1: information from whom? alter-approach EXPL 2: How useful (unique) is the information? structural approach EXPL 3: How do other relations help/hinder the advice seeking? influence of other relations (= indirect effect) = tie approach EXPL 4: What is done with the information? Interaction with broader context (other relations) = tie approach Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 17

18 B: TIE-approach: other relations
Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 18

19 Tie model Beta VIF Seniority 0,521 *** 1,654 0,527 1,711 Office II 0,274 1,104 0,264 1,171 Office III 0,075 1,230 0,065 1,347 Litigation -0,143 * 1,061 -0,145 1,164 Gender 0,053 1,237 0,048 1,351 Law School 2 0,023 2,214 0,027 2,231 Law School 3 -0,008 2,126 0,016 2,331 Indegree Advice 0,031 1,142 0,044 1,622 Outdegree Advice 0,382 1,648 0,406 2,388 Indegree Friend -0,052 3,153 Outdegree Friend -0,044 3,042 Multiplexity Advice-Friend 0,042 2,735 R² = and (R² = for model with advice outdegree only) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 19

20 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches
Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie-approach Relations Alter-approach Characteristics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetter’s «weak ties») B. Consequences of embeddedness in social networks => social support, friendship… (e.g. Krackhardt’s «philos») Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 20

21 TIE-approach: friendship
performance others friends No effect of considering others more often as friends Ask advice to others performance Consider other friends No effect of considering more others friends on advice No indirect effect through advice (causality?) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 21

22 TIE-approach: friendship
Interaction-effect: Friendship and advice advice performance friendship No effect No social aspects that improve trust of information asked Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 22

23 C: ALTER-approach: resources
Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 23

24 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches
Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie-approach Relations Alter-approach Characteristics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetter’s «weak ties») B. Consequences of embeddedness in social networks => social support, friendship… (e.g. Krackhardt’s «philos») C. Strategic choice of specific alters => Importance of sources (Diversity) (e.g. Burt, 1983 social circles) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 24

25 ALTER-approach: resources
> 1) Persons who have lots of resources (hierarchy = gray) Importance of asking advice from: Positive effect > 2) Persons who have resources that are complementary to ones own resources (ego) (complementarity) Negative effect (similar = +) > OR 3) Persons who differ between each other in the type of resources (diversiteit) No effect Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 25

26 Advice model Beta VIF Seniority 0,451 *** 2,090 Office II 0,193 * 1,096 Office III 0,007 1,178 Litigation -0,064 1,192 Gender 0,089 1,286 Law School 2 -0,004 2,371 Law School 3 0,018 2,350 Outdegree Advice 0,042 1,134 Alter Outdegree Advice¹ 0,236 2,083 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Advice¹ -0,258 ** 1,546 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Advice¹ 0,086 1,544 R² = (R² = for model with advice outdegree only) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 26

27 D: ALTER-approach: norms
Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 27

28 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches
Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie-approach Relations Alter-approach Characteristics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetter’s «weak ties») B. Consequences of embeddedness in social networks => social support, friendship… (e.g. Krackhardt’s «philos») C. Strategic choice of specific alters => Importance of sources (Diversity) (e.g. Burt, 1983 social circles) D. Shared norms, expectations, ideas => Consequence of homophily (e.g. Krackhardt’s Simmilian ties) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 28

29 ALTER-approach: norms
> 1) Persons who have specific (beneficial) norms Importance of being friends with: Negative effect (=> friends with associate better) < 2) Persons who have similar norms to ego (similariteit) No effect < OR 3) Persons who have consistent (same) norms between each other (consistency) No effect Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 29

30 Friendship model Beta VIF Seniority 0,577 *** 1,788 Office II 0,195 * 1,195 Office III 0,003 1,352 Litigation -0,076 1,184 Gender 0,100 1,294 Law School 2 -0,015 2,235 Law School 3 0,013 2,248 Outdegree Friend 0,064 1,168 Alter Outdegree Friend¹ -0,257 ** 1,473 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Friend¹ -0,051 2,694 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Friend¹ 0,029 2,742 R² = (R² = for model with advice outdegree only) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 30

31 E: Structural approach: open structures
Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 31

32 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches
Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie-approach Relations Alter-approach Characteristics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetter’s «weak ties») B. Consequences of embeddedness in social networks => social support, friendship… (e.g. Krackhardt’s «philos») C. Strategic choice of specific alters => Importance of sources (Diversity) (e.g. Burt, 1983 social circles) D. Shared norms, expectations, ideas => Consequence of homophily (e.g. Krackhardt’s Simmilian ties) E. Strategic choice of relations with others that are less connected => Open structures (e.g. Burt’s «Structural holes») Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 32

33 Structural approach: open
Open structures: Ask advice from persons that do not ask each other for advice EGO More unique information Use unique position No effect (advice or friendship) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 33

34 F: Structural approach: closed structures
Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 34

35 Social capital: ideal-typology of approaches
Active and intentional strategy (improve performance) Passive and/or not strategic aimed at improving performance Tie-approach Relations Alter-approach Characteristics Structural approach Structure A. Relations that have explicit aim of improving performance => advice (e.g. Granovetter’s «weak ties») B. Consequences of embeddedness in social networks => social support, friendship… (e.g. Krackhardt’s «philos») C. Strategic choice of specific alters => Importance of sources (Diversity) (e.g. Burt, 1983 social circles) D. Shared norms, expectations, ideas => Consequence of homophily (e.g. Krackhardt’s Simmilian ties) E. Strategic choice of relations with others that are less connected => Open structures (e.g. Burt’s «Structural holes») F. Relations with persons who are connected to each other => Closed structures (e.g. «closure» - Coleman, 1988) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 35

36 Structural approach: closure
Closed structures: Friends to people that are themselves friends EGO Trust/dependence Complex info No new, simple information (same info from different persons) Negative effect of closed triades for friendship Strong internal relations Control about what is acceptable (expectations) Reduces possibilities for asking advice from outside group Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 36

37 Advice model Beta VIF Seniority 0,451 *** 2,090 0,437 2,178 Office II 0,193 * 1,096 0,207 ** 1,135 Office III 0,007 1,178 0,013 1,190 Litigation -0,064 1,192 -0,065 1,355 Gender 0,089 1,286 0,090 1,287 Law School 2 -0,004 2,371 0,003 2,387 Law School 3 0,018 2,350 0,008 2,399 Outdegree Advice 0,042 1,134 1,136 Alter Outdegree Advice¹ 0,236 2,083 0,248 2,424 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Advice¹ -0,258 1,546 -0,302 2,044 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Advice¹ 0,086 1,544 0,227 6,357 Closed Advice triads¹ 0,038 1,668 Open Advice triads¹ -0,154 5,475 R² = and (R² = for model with advice outdegree only) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 37

38 Friendship model Beta VIF Seniority 0,577 *** 1,788 0,625 1,904 Office II 0,195 * 1,195 0,191 1,208 Office III 0,003 1,352 0,034 1,462 Litigation -0,076 1,184 -0,044 1,262 Gender 0,100 1,294 0,081 1,323 Law School 2 -0,015 2,235 0,038 2,338 Law School 3 0,013 2,248 0,094 2,526 Outdegree Friend 0,064 1,168 0,065 1,174 Alter Outdegree Friend¹ -0,257 ** 1,473 -0,350 1,801 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Friend¹ -0,051 2,694 -0,154 4,512 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Friend¹ 0,029 2,742 0,140 6,635 Closed Friend triads¹ -0,229 1,990 Open Friend triads¹ 0,044 2,366 R² = and (R² = for model with advice outdegree only) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 38

39 Friendship and advice model
Beta VIF Outdegree Advice 0,053 1,515 0,062 1,588 Outdegree Friend -0,011 1,732 -0,003 1,938 Alter Outdegree Advice¹ 0,210 2,358 0,179 3,081 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Advice¹ -0,196 2,355 -0,176 3,823 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Advice¹ 0,091 1,724 0,238 6,889 -0,113 2,567 -0,241 4,011 Difference Ego-Alter Outdegree Friend¹ -0,024 2,861 -0,063 5,568 Difference Between Alters Outdegree Friend¹ 0,035 2,962 0,031 7,552 Closed Advice triads¹ 0,074 1,847 Open Advice triads¹ -0,151 6,140 Closed Friend triads¹ -0,173 2,726 Open Friend triads¹ 0,100 2,685 R² = and (R² = and for model without and with outdegree) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 39

40 Conclusions Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 40

41 Conclusion 6 approaches to the measurement of individual social capital Most important findings: Being asked for advice positively related to performance, but possibly selection-effect Friendship (no direct effect) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 41

42 Conclusion Most important findings:
In general: asking advice not related to performance BUT… Choosing specific others important: Advice relations with alters that are hierarchically higher: (+) Advice relations with alters similar in hierarchy: (+) Friendship with associate (+) Closed structures friendship (-) Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 42

43 Conclusions Limitations: Aantal beperkingen:
No knowledge of type of advice Validation/confirmation/new information/… Application of advice? Aantal beperkingen: Geen kennis over soort informatie en de bruikbaarheid Validation/confirmation/new information/… Wat doen mensen met de info? Causality (multicollinearity!) => longitudinal Selection or influence? Consequences of other relations? Types of structures related (centrality, closure, resourcefulness) => How? Causality? Advice from outside? Limiting of strong ties… Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 43

44 Conclusion THE END Theories and measures of social capital – Filip Agneessens - 18/07/2006 Research Methods Festival, St Catherine’s College Oxford 44


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