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Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Well-being in later life Diversity and inequality in economic and social transitions.

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Presentation on theme: "Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Well-being in later life Diversity and inequality in economic and social transitions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Well-being in later life Diversity and inequality in economic and social transitions James Nazroo Sociology, School of Social Sciences

2 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Survival rates by age and period: UK women

3 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester An Ageing World The number of elderly people (those aged 65 and older) increased more than threefold since In Europe 14% of the population is 65 and older; by 2050 this is estimated to be 28% of the population. In 2002 there were 3.4 people for each person of pensionable age in the UK, by 2031 this ratio will 2.5. The rate of increase of the 65 and older population is accelerating: Currently it is by 8 million people per year; In 2030 it is estimated to be by 24 million people per year. The oldest old (those aged 80 and older) is the fastest growing group among the elderly.

4 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester United Nations projected per cent of the Global Population (Revision 2004)

5 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester An ageing population An equation of older age: Illness and physical dependency – a crisis in health care; Poverty and financial dependency – a pension crisis; Not having a role in society and social isolation; Being dissatisfied A looming catastrophe, as populations top-heavy with frail, retired elderly drain pension and social security funds, overwhelm health care systems, and rely for support on a dwindling working-age population.

6 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Labour force participation among older people Full-timePart-timeSelf-employed Banks and Smith, FES

7 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Chronic disability (Americans aged 65 plus) Total population aged 65+ was 26.9m (Projected) Total population aged 65+ was 36.4m Total population aged 65+ was 33.1m Total population aged 65+ was 30.8m Source: National Long Term Care Survey (Manton, revised November 1999 )

8 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Chronic disability (Americans aged 65 plus) Total population aged 65+ was 26.9m (Projected) Total population aged 65+ was 36.4m Total population aged 65+ was 33.1m Total population aged 65+ was 30.8m Source: National Long Term Care Survey (Manton, revised November 1999 )

9 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester An ageing population But: Improvements in health alongside increases in life expectancy? Growing economic well-being of people post-retirement? Social productivity and cultural mainstream, rather than dependency and exclusion? A looming catastrophe, as populations top-heavy with frail, retired elderly drain pension and social security funds, overwhelm health care systems, and rely for support on a dwindling working-age population. And growing diversity and inequality in the experience of later life.

10 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Health trajectories, disability and healthy life expectancy The relationship between economic position and health The determinants of economic position in later life Timing of retirement and post retirement labour market activity Social participation, productivity, networks and support Economic, social and health inequalities A panel study of people aged 50 and older, interviewed every two years (since 2002), currently in its third wave of data collection.

11 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester ELSA: sample design and data collection Sample at wave 1 is approximately 11,500 people born before 1 st March 1952 who are in the private household sector at baseline. Refreshed with younger people at wave 3. Drawn from Health Survey for England (1998, 1999, 2001 years) - HSE measures form ELSA baseline (wave 0). Includes spouses outside the age range and partners who joined the household since the HSE baseline (giving 12,100 cases in total). Those incapable of doing the interview have a proxy interview. Interviewed every two years since 2002, with a biomedical assessment every four years. Exit interviews are carried out with the partners or carers of people who died after wave 1.

12 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester ELSA: broad questionnaire coverage Demographics Self-assessed health Diagnosed disease & symptoms Quality of received medical care Activities of daily living and Instrumental ADLS Eyesight, hearing, pain, falls Mental health Health behaviours Cognitive function measures Physical performance measures Biomedical measures Housing (tenure, quality and value) Household wealth and income Relative deprivation Pensions and retirement Employment status, earnings and job characteristics Consumption/spending Psychosocial factors & well-being Social and civic participation Expectations for the future Life histories Administrative data

13 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Well-being outcomes Psychological well-being General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), 12 item version Dichotomised at a score > 3 Quality of Life Control, Autonomy, Self-realisation and Pleasure scale (CASP-19) Dichotomised at a score < 37 Depression symptoms Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D), eight item version Dichotomised at a score > 4

14 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Age and psychological wellbeing (GHQ12)

15 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Age and quality of life (CASP19)

16 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Age and depression (CES-D)

17 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Categories of retirement status Routine, State Pension Age because reached retirement age Voluntary To enjoy life To spend time with partner or family Fed up with job and wanted a change To give the younger generation a chance Offered reasonable financial terms to retire early Involuntary Ill health (own or of a relative/friend) Made redundant Could not find another job

18 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Retirement status and depression

19 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Age, retirement status and depression (men)

20 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Age and economic position

21 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Retirement status and economic position

22 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Retirement status and disability

23 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Occupational position and retirement status

24 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Retirement status and retirement cohort Routine normal age retirementInvoluntary retirementVoluntary retirement

25 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Age and depression : multivariate analysis (CES-D score > 4)

26 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Age and depression : multivariate analysis (CES-D score > 4)

27 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Age and depression : multivariate analysis (CES-D score > 4)

28 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Age and depression : multivariate analysis (CES-D score > 4)

29 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Age and depression : multivariate analysis (CES-D score > 4)

30 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester We travel a lot. That's the other thing I do in my spare time, I do travel talks for … charity. I did two last week actually. People like … businessman's association, and I talked to them about [Country] where my daughter had lived for 4 years and we visited them quite a lot. So I do slide shows. And I did [Another Country] on Friday … I do those I suppose … well once or twice a month I suppose. Have lunch and … or evening sessions with different groups of people, talk to them about different places round the world that we've visited. I looked after Modern Languages for a period of time as a governor [at the school]. And so I had a talk about [Area in France]. So I had some slides and did a talk in French … we then set a test for the youngsters. And we tried to make the subject live rather than … you know. So I could bring from something outside into the school. You know with my own knowledge of languages, which is reasonable, and with [Teachers] expertise we could actually together make the language more interesting than just learning for the sake of learning. Man age 66, retired aged 58

31 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester R:I now work three days a month for them. For a while … But my knowledge becomes out of date … yeah it will fade away, Ive no illusions about that. But at the moment its great and theyre paying well for it, so thats it. I:Was that an idea you had that you wanted to stay working for a little bit of time or … R:Yeah. And you know also there are other people there that have done it. Its the kind of job that you can do that... [Employers] rely on experts in part and therefore for them its quite interesting to have someone on a retainer … they can call in a known expert. So its something that the company is used to doing, having people that they bring in, as opposed to having them working there full time and doing all the hard slog … I:And was that important to you or not to be able to do that? R:Yeah I think it was, yeah cos it just took the edge off complete isolation. Man age 64, retired

32 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester R: I enjoy driving thats all theres to it … Like as I say its a bit rough at the moment with the cost of petrol and all that but we like to … thats our pleasure getting around. W:We only can go out say once fortnight or a month now, cant we? R:If we can keep the car moving were quite happy … we bomb off to a different town nearly every week. When its good weather well do over the mountain way to [Town] and up round the dams (Laughs) some people think were a bit crazy … In the winter and that were just the same, we go off out and … the cars warm. W:Its warmer in the car than in here because we cant afford to have our central heating on all the time, can we … ? R:It dont matter who you vote for … thats out of all sense and reason what theyve done to it. If you work out youre paying above four pound a gallon. Four pound a gallon for blooming petrol. Man age 75, interviewed with his wife

33 Combining the strengths of UMIST and The Victoria University of Manchester Conclusions: well-being in later life Age and transitions: Retirement status/route (voluntary) Marital status (divorce and widowhood) Wealth and disability Lifecourse Gender, occupational class and work status (long-term sick, unemployed, looking after the home/family) Cohort/Age: Occupational structures Pension arrangements Retirement choices/opportunities Marriage choices


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