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Www.ippr.org Catherine Drew institute for public policy research CCSR 28 November 2006 Brits Abroad Mapping the scale and nature of the British diaspora.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.ippr.org Catherine Drew institute for public policy research CCSR 28 November 2006 Brits Abroad Mapping the scale and nature of the British diaspora."— Presentation transcript:

1 Catherine Drew institute for public policy research CCSR 28 November 2006 Brits Abroad Mapping the scale and nature of the British diaspora

2 Why is British emigration important? Focus has been on immigration not emigration Why do we now need to fill this research gap? –Numerically significant… –…and will continue to grow –UK population stocks – comings and goings –Socio, economic and political implications –UK in contrast to other countries

3 Aim and methodology To map the scale and nature of contemporary British emigration Methodology –Quantitative –Qualitative (focus groups and interviews across 14 countries) –Survey data –Blog

4 Emigration flows are rising Annual international migration flows of British nationals, Source: IPS and TIM data, ONS

5 Destination countries are changing Gross emigration of British emigrants, selected destination country, Source: IPS data, ONS

6 Calculating stocks of Brits abroad Previous published estimates range from 3.4 to 14.5 million Multiple data sources with incomplete coverage and varying degrees of reliability –Census –UK state pensions (DWP) –Passports issued overseas (FCO) Triangulation to estimate British diaspora Multiple definitions of Brits abroad Brits abroad for a year or longer5,540,000 Including Brits living temporarily overseas6,050,000 Including people who are eligible for a British passport13,600,000 Including people who identify as having British ancestry58,000,000

7 Calculating stocks of Brits abroad Country Brits abroad for a year or longer Including those who live abroad for part of the year Including all those eligible for a British passport Including all those who identify as having British ancestry Australia1,300,0001,310,0002,070,000 Spain 761,000990,0001,070,000 Singapore45,00056,000 Netherlands44,00048,000 China (including Hong Kong)36,000 3,750,000 Turkey34,00038,000 Jamaica25,00031,000 Lebanon2,200 TOTAL5,540,0006,050,00013,620,00058,000,000

8 Brits are spread across the globe Countries re-sized by volume of Brits abroad there for a year or longer Source: Maps produced by University of Sheffield based on ippr calculations

9 The UK is an active skills interchange 2/3 of Brits leave to take up employment overseas British emigrants are becoming increasingly highly skilled Since 1976, the UK has lost more than half a million highly skilled Brits Replaced by highly skilled immigrants Recent increases in –lower-skilled British emigration –non-economically active near-retirement age migration

10 Pensioners abroad 1 million UK state pensioners registered overseas Largest numbers in: Australia, Canada, USA, Ireland Largest growth rates in: Sweden, France, Spain, Trinidad & Tobago Proportion of UK state pensioners taking retirement overseas is growing HMG pays £2 billion to overseas pensioners NHS pays £331 million for healthcare of British pensioners in EU

11 Explaining British emigration Net emigration of British nationals may be strong during times of economic prosperity at home when –unemployment is low –house prices are rising –exchange rates are favourable Correlation between British emigration and unemployment, 2 year lag, Source: TIM data ONS, Labour Force Survey and ippr calculations

12 Motivations for moving Dominant motivations for emigration seem to be positive attributes of the places they would like to go to rather than the negative attributes of the UK Can be divided into four main flow factors –Family Ties –Lifestyle –Overseas Adventure –Work British emigrants fit into many or none

13 Settlement and Integration The vast majority of Brits slip easily into new societies, but some find integration more challenging Key barriers to integration –Language and cultural differences lead to clustering –Lack of preparation –Self-perceptions of British emigrants –Family-orientated host communities

14 Diasporic identity and ties No hyphenated British identity - national identity becomes stronger overseas No collective British diasporic identity English, Scottish, Welsh vs British Stronger virtual ties with the UK than in situ connections with other expats Reconstruction of social class abroad Distinct from Brits who live in the UK

15 A growing diaspora Factors encouraging emigration: –The new travel bug –Globalisation and emerging markets –me society –Other countries attractive immigration policies –EU enlargement A million more Brits could emigrate over next five years Ageing but mobile demographic means that 3.3 million British pensioners could live overseas by 2050 (taking £6.5 billion)

16 Implications and recommendations By engaging more with its overseas citizens, the UK could: –Tap into the knowledge, skills and contact network of Brits abroad to promote trade and investment and minimise the risk of brain drain. –Use Brits abroad as cultural ambassadors to aid public diplomacy efforts. –Develop initiatives to encourage overseas Brits to return home and ensure their skills and expertise are fully utilised. –Promote the political participation of Brits abroad to ensure democratic renewal.

17 Implications and recommendations The UK Government should also help those most at risk by: –Devising fair and workable rules on who is entitled to British public services and under what conditions. –Continuing with information campaigns to ensure that Brits are fully prepared for living overseas. –Gaining a better understanding of who is where at times of international crisis Need for more research into emigration –Data (e.g. boosted IPS samples, e-borders, Brits abroad census) –Non-British emigration

18 Catherine Drew institute for public policy research CCSR 28 November 2006 Brits Abroad Mapping the scale and nature of the British diaspora


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