Presentation on theme: "Changing Family & Work Values Jacqueline Scott, University of Cambridge & Michael Braun, ZUMA Germany."— Presentation transcript:
Changing Family & Work Values Jacqueline Scott, University of Cambridge & Michael Braun, ZUMA Germany
Women and Employment Study Relationship between home and work crucial for womens position in labour market and society. Need to examine how labour market influenced by and influences reproductive role and domestic division of labour (Martin and Roberts 1984)
Family & gender-role values Work values Gender & Generation Socio-cultural differences across countries (e.g. welfare regimes, religion, family, employment etc.) Family and employment activities across the life course
Cross-national data spanning 1980 – present day European Value Survey Not ideal, but best available for family values & work values
Key predictors of family values MARRIAGE – most people support Country (differences stable) Gender (negligible) Generation (war vs. rest) Marital status (as expected) Employment status (negligible) Religious (far more trad) MOTHERHOOD – greater variation in whether needed for fulfilment Country (differences stable) Gender (women less trad) Generation (war vs. rest) Parent status (as expected) Employment status (employed less trad) Religious (more trad)
Intrinsic and extrinsic work value measures Which aspects of job do you think are important ? Extrinsic: good pay, not too much pressure; good job security; good hours; generous holidays Intrinsic: an opportunity to use initiative; a job in which you feel you can achieve something; a responsible job; a job that is interesting; a job that meets ones abilities
How does Britain stand on work values in cross-national comparison? GBs extrinsic values increased markedly across decades (along with many other European countries). If anything, recent generations emphasise extrinsic values more. GBs intrinsic values decreased over time. For most of Europe intrinsic values have increased.
Marital Status & Extrinsic work values by gender & time (USA)
Marital Status & Intrinsic work values by gender time (USA)
Where next? Continuing the Women & Employment challenge looking at how the two way links between family and work differ by gender and across time: using longitudinal data to study life course dynamics e.g. how gender roles and work values in adolescence affect subsequent family formation and employment trajectories using comparative data to explore what is distinctive about UK in the factors that influence family values and work values change using longitudinal & comparative analysis to identify policy challenges and examine impact of different family and work policies across time & place.
Findings: 25 years of Change in Family and Work Values Link between marriage and womens employment almost eradicated Maternal employment continues to rise Gender roles attitudes are changing quite slowly (with some reversals) High support for marriage as institution; little change over time Pro-motherhood sentiments stable across time, but differ markedly across countries. Extrinsic work values on rise throughout Europe Intrinsic work orientation on rise in most of Europe, but not in UK Link between marital status and extrinsic job values changing, in U.S.