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Working full-time after motherhood: Taking a longer view Susan McRae Oxford Brookes University December 2005 DRAFT: DO NOT QUOTE.

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Presentation on theme: "Working full-time after motherhood: Taking a longer view Susan McRae Oxford Brookes University December 2005 DRAFT: DO NOT QUOTE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Working full-time after motherhood: Taking a longer view Susan McRae Oxford Brookes University December 2005 DRAFT: DO NOT QUOTE

2 Employment after motherhood Importance of the Women and Employment Survey (WES) Dramatic increase over 3 decades in the employment of new mothers

3 Table 1: Three decades of change: womens employment after childbirth In work Full-time Part-time Not in work Seeking work

4 Working full-time after motherhood: Taking a longer view First-time mothers in the labour market Snapshots vs continuous employment Defining and predicting continuity of employment Benefits of continuity Concluding comments

5 Data A combined dataset based on three postal surveys of women who had given birth between November 1987 and January 1988 –1988 maternity rights survey; –1993 survey of women from 1988 who had been employed or looking for work during pregnancy; –1999 survey, with same base as 1993.

6 Figure 1: Comparative Data: Social Trends (ST) (child 5-10) and the Combined dataset (CDS)1999 With partnersLone mothers

7 Table 2: Comparative occupational data: Social Trends (ST) and the Combined Dataset (CDS) 1999 ST (All)CDS Management1112 Professional1012 Associate professional1115 Clerical/secretarial26 Craft/manual22 Personal & Protective17 Sales127 Operatives42 Other occupations88

8 Figure 2: Snapshots of womens employment before and after a first birth (CDS )

9 Figure 3: Work history patterns 11 years after a first birth (CDS )

10 Table 4: Predicting continuous full-time employment after a first birth (1) 1993 Odds ratios Occupation (ref: manual/sales) Management/Professional Associate professional Clerical Secretarial Personal & Protective ** 2.82* 4.60* Womens pay1.015*** Number of children.224*** Uses paid childcare2.35** 1999 Odds ratios 5.18** 4.99** *.457*** 2.89***

11 Table 4 (contd) Predicting continuous full-time employment after a first birth (2) 1999 Odds ratios Childcare problems have affected her job opportunities (ref: yes in both 1993 and 1999) Childcare problems in either 1993 or 1999 Childcare problems never affected opportunities 2.21 L 4.95*** L

12 Table 4 (contd): Predicting continuous full-time employment after a first birth (3) 1993 Odds ratios Sector93 (ref: other industries) Education Health/Social Public & other services Business & Finance.80.26** Sector99 (ref: Private sector) Education/Health Public & other services 1999 Odds ratios.54.89

13 Table 4 (contd): Predicting Continuous full- time employment after a first birth (4) 1993 Odds Ratios Partners weekly pay.998* P disagrees her main job is family P disagrees her job to fit family 2.57** n.s. W disagrees: mans/womans job W disagrees: job with no worries Nagelkerke R squared Odds ratios n.s. 2.41** 1.85** 1.80** L 2.13** L.41

14 Figure 4: Transitions after a first childbirth in 1987: % experiencing downward mobility (CDS)

15 Figures 5 & 6: Transitions after a first childbirth in 1987: % experiencing downward mobility by occupational level and selected work histories Management/Professional Associate professional

16 Figures 6 & 7: Transitions after a first childbirth in 1987: % experiencing downward mobility by occupational level and selected work histories Clerical/Secretarial Personal & Protective

17 Table 5: Promotion 1993 Model 1 Odds ratios Model 2 Odds ratios Labour market duration (months)1.025**1.022** Employment status (ref: mostly part-time) Mostly full-time Full-time & part-time about equally 4.11*** 3.15** 2.81*** 2.78** Had formal training course at workplace3.51**3.33*** Had formal training course away from work1.84*1.16 (p>.1) Womens weekly pay1.004** Nagelkerke R squared N= women in work in

18 Table 6: Promotion 1999: Odds ratios Model 1Model 2 Promoted in ***2.67*** Womens weekly pay1.002*1.002** Holds traditional views.645*.622** Employment status (ref: mostly part-time) Mostly full-time Full-time & part-time about equally Duration in labour market 1.88** 2.08** n.s FT continuous employment to * Occupation (ref: manual, sales, P+P) Management/Professional Associate professional Clerical/Secretarial 3.64*** 3.43*** 3.68*** 3.58*** 3.35*** 3.48*** Nagelkerke R squared N= women in work in

19 Figure 9: Average hourly pay 1999 by work history

20 Figure 10: Average hourly pay 1999 by Occupational Group

21 Concluding comments Employment continuity still not the norm Full-time continuous employment is the minority pattern But clear benefits from continuity, especially for full-timers –Avoidance of DOM –Promotion (fairly weak) –Pay (for part-timers too)

22 Concluding comments Polarisation between women persists –Continuity concentrated in higher level occupational groups –Being able to pay for childcare enhances continuity chances –Higher earners more likely to work continuously


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