Presentation on theme: "Project 9 Core Publications EU Work/family balance and gender 1. Work/family reconciliation, equal opportunities and social policies: policy trajectories."— Presentation transcript:
Project 9 Core Publications EU Work/family balance and gender 1. Work/family reconciliation, equal opportunities and social policies: policy trajectories at the EU level and the meaning of gender equality [JnlEuropPubPol,2006,13,3] 2. Patterns of paid and unpaid work in western Europe [JnlEuropSocPol,2008,18,1] UK Work/family balance and gender 1. Work/family balance policies in the UK: A new departure? [JnlSocPol,2007,36,3] 2. UK Work/family balance policies and gender equality, 1997-2005 [SocialPolitics,Spring,2007] 3. Whats in a Name? Work-life balance or Work-Family balance? [SocPolandAdmin,fc] 4. New Labour and the redistribution of time [PoliticalQuarterly,2006,77,2] 5. Labours policy on money for parents: combining care and paid work UK Equalities structure and policy 1. Equality and diversity: a new approach to gender equality policy [IntntlJnlofLawinContext,2007,3,1] Bringing it all together: Jane Lewiss forthcoming book
Equalities not at issue Sex [called Gender in some policy/statutory contexts] Race/ethnicity Disability Sexual orientation Transgender [in all cases assuming application of same/difference principles] BUT: agency/choice affect Gender in terms of worker/caregiver [and ?religion when ethnicity - not discussed here. Income inequalities also pose problems of agency/choice]
Some framing devices Public good and private utility Inter-household and intra-household (gendered) Life-course (longitudinal) dimension (gendered) Work-family balance policy - Time for work and care - Services to support worker/carers - Money for care (complete or partial earnings replacement for carework plus [arguably] compensation for cost/ opportunity cost of public good element of caregiving) State/employers/family
The case to answer Different views of how to achieve Gender Equality Conflicting interests within families - between parents (mothers) and children - between mothers and fathers (freeriding) Tensions between families with care responsibilities and families without (freeriding) Do women want gender equality? Changing architecture of equalities debate and policy Gender and sex in policy contexts
Inequalities: time and money (IntER- and intrA-household and life-course) 1.Time and care: the rush hour Adult leisure time (hrs&mins/week) [Australia] Male Female Whole populat.35.1231.23 No children42.4739.31 With children 10-14 years25.2024.52 5-9 years 9.47 9.01 2-4 years 5.32 5.23 Under 2 7.43 2.38 [Does not show intra-hsehold inequality of paid/unpaid wk] Source: Bittman, M. and Wacjman, J., pp 173-193 in Folbre and Bittman (2004) 2.Money Womens individual incomes as % of comparable men (UK) 1996-72004-5 Pensioners Single 8293 Couple 3237 Non-pensioners, no dependent children Single9092 Couple5259 With dependent children Couple3140 [Too few lone fathers for comparison with lone mothers; table does not show inter-hsehold] Source: Women and Equality Unit (2006) Individual Income Statistics
Percentage of women in the labour force 1980-2006, aged 25-54 [ILO/KILM data]
Participation rate: gap between men and women, 1990 and 2006
Women in EU-25 aged 25-54, 2006: labour market inactivity 23.5% of women (23.2 million) compared to 7% of men 10.1% of women were inactive for personal or family (P&F) reasons BUT… 16.6 million were not willing to work, of whom 7.4 million for P&F reasons, i.e. 7 in 10 of P&F inactive women were not willing to work Only 6.6 million were willing to work Only 2.6 million of the willing to work but not seeking work were in the P&F category [some others might be though in different categories AND… These 2.6 million were concentrated in particular countries Womens inactivity had fallen sharply as mothers employment rose Source: Hardarson, O. (2007) People outside the labour force: the downward trend continues, Statistics in Focus, Population and Social Conditions, 122/2007, Luxembourg: Eurostat.
Inactive people in UK, 2007: future paid work intentions 2.1 million women but only 197,000 men (aged 16-64) because of family and home: 45% of all inactive women, 6% of all inactive men Over 70% of all inactives said they would definitely (46.5%) or probably (25%) work in future (excluding students) Of 46.5% definites, 74% inactive because pre-school child Most of 46.5% definites plan to work again within five years 19.2% of ALL inactive women are long-term sick, 19.6% are students Source: Kent, K. (2007) New LFS questions on economic inactivity, Economic and Labour Market Review, 1, 12, pp 30-36. May-July 2007 data.
Time-related underemployment, 2005 Employed persons who wish to work more hours Thousands% of employment Allmen womenAllmenwomen France84115268220.127.116.11 Germany 1,3713979743.82.06.0 Italy9162366718.104.22.168 Spain655135522.214.171.124 UK44117226126.96.36.199 United States 1,34456083188.8.131.52 Source: International Labour Organisation, KILM 12
Equity: Can fairness, sharing, justice relieve tensions implicit in equality? Some possible implications…… Lisbon Strategy (inter-household, life-course) Flexible hours for paid work (inter-household, life-course) Mothers and children (intra-household) Mothers and fathers (intra-household) But…. What do we lose….? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mary Campbell, March 28 2008: Please do not cite without permission