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1 Gender Inequality in Production and Reproduction Sarah Dyer, Linda McDowell, Adina Batnitzky,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Gender Inequality in Production and Reproduction Sarah Dyer, Linda McDowell, Adina Batnitzky,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Gender Inequality in Production and Reproduction Sarah Dyer, Linda McDowell, Adina Batnitzky,

2 2 Emotional work/body work: the caring labours of migrants in the UKs National Health Service

3 3 Case study West Central Hospital (NHS) 60 interviews with employees born and school-educated outside the UK

4 4 Why ask about migration? Numbers/complexity Migrants and service sector work Gender and migration asp?id=260

5 5 Twofold characterisation of caring work Emotional labour (Hochschild 1983) Body work (Gubrium, 1975, Wolkowitz, 2002, 2006)

6 6 Emotional labour Customer orientated bureaucracy (Kerfoot and Korczynski, 2005, Korczynski, 2001) Patients to customers Neo-liberal and managerial organization of care

7 7 Body work Wolkowitz (2002: 501) argues the worker is employed as much to carry dirts stigma as to labour Need to be explicit in recognizing, and therefore attempting to deal with, the centrality of body work to post industrial national and global economies. Wolkowitz (2002: 499)

8 8 Migrants caring labour at WCH

9 9 Intense emotional labour Still its hard work and there is a lot, because the first time I see, you know, someone… I saw someone die with the civil war. I havent seen someone dying naturally and that was hardest. Before they left I was heartbroken because the home, the nursing home the old people were dying a lot, you could see two or three people dying in one day and so [I was] heartbroken, you know. Sometimes youre so attached with someone and then you know and it was so hard for me, thats why. (Habiba, HCA, female, Somalia)

10 10 Oh dear, like for example, if the patient, like patients progress or patients deterioration, sometimes they panic and they're more aggressive than the patient most of the time, and the patient is okay but they are panicking and like insulting, verbal insults (Joy, nurse, female, Philippines) We can stay calm…if we raise our voice, that again going to…you know, going to agitate the family and they will be more anxious and they will get more angry so I think it is better to stay calm (Parnal, nurse, female, India)

11 11 Cultures of emotional labour Attitude is how you approach the patient, how you feel you're working. But here (in the UK) it is only skills and knowledge. Attitude (is) how you interact with the patient or like when you communicate to the patient, how is your facial expression? How is your body language? (Joy, nurse, female, Philippines)

12 12 Caring as non-routine Oh dear, if you have to thoroughly wash, it takes about 15 to 30 minutes, it depends on how, you know, how dirty they are; how difficult (they are) to move. Because sometimes when, after washing them, they poo again. I have to go back again and wash them. (Joy, nurse, female, Philippines)

13 13 Prisoners of love (Folbre and Nelson 2000) A lot of Polish will come to the hospital, it is growing, so I cant see that Im useful, some of them dont speak English at all, they are really distressed and a new place, everything is new, different. (Krzysztof, Porter, male, Poland)

14 14 If they're short of staff, they will ask me if I can go on the ward to help the patients but I dont like it because the ward is too big [laughing] … I really love old people. I love to help old people as well. Yeah, I have a pity for old people, so I go there and Ill make them breakfast and tidy the ward, like mop and clean the sink and going in their room, clean anything, check toilets, soap and stuff, so Im used to it…I like caring, sometimes I go there and I sing for them. (Amber, cleaner, female, Jamaica)

15 15 Cultures of body work I didn't realise that you have to wash the body and everything. Back home we dont do it, washing patients. We dont really do it. It's a relative doing it. (Catherine, nurse, female, Philippines)

16 16 In Morocco they said listen, if you go to Europe, like a domestic or sweeping the roads or what ever, you will find a job quickly [snaps his fingers] because the English people, they dont want to do this type of job. So they give them to foreigners. (Hafid, cleaning supervisor, male, Moroccan) Jobs for migrants?

17 17 Because they throw me in South side where the old building is, because theyre changing the building and they would shuffle the staff, and they put me to [elderly] Ward which is like… it's not permanent and theyre throwing patients, mostly like having mental problems or really waiting for a nursing home and everything, and it's really, for one, it's not really good conditions of where it is, it's an old building down there, it's not happy to work with because all patients are complaining, what is this style of work. (Catherine, nurse, female, Philippines)

18 18 Conclusions Care = organisation + physical labour + emotional labour (James 1992) Caring work gendered and devalued as both emotional labour and body work Migration shapes these mechanisms in important ways Valuable to not presuppose who does caring work

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