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PRAGES PRActising Gender Equality in Science Guidelines presentation Manchester, November 9 2009 Marina Cacace - ASDO.

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Presentation on theme: "PRAGES PRActising Gender Equality in Science Guidelines presentation Manchester, November 9 2009 Marina Cacace - ASDO."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRAGES PRActising Gender Equality in Science Guidelines presentation Manchester, November 9 2009 Marina Cacace - ASDO

2 2 Institutional framework Co-ordinating Action: Practising Gender Equality in Science/PRAGES A survey of positive actions schemes in the area of research decision-making Work programme: Capacities –part: Science in Society Activity: Gender and Research –Area: Strengthening the role of women in scientific research Co-financed by the Italian General Inspectorate for Financial Relations with the EU/Ministry for Economy and Finance

3 3 Partners Department for Equal Opportunities (co-ordinator)/ ITALY ASDO/ITALY TETALAP - Hungarian Science and Technology Foundation/ HUNGARY University of Milan - Centre for Study and Research Women and Gender Difference/ITALY Manchester University - Centre for Equality and Diversity at Work/UK The European University Institute/ITALY University of Milan Bicocca - Sociology and Social Research Department/ITALY Aarhus University - The Danish Centre for Studies in Research and Research Policies/ DENMARK The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge/UK University of Southern Queensland (AUSTRALIA) Simmons College School of Management - Center for Gender Organization/USA

4 4 Countries represented EU Denmark Hungary Italy United Kingdom NON EU Australia Canada* United States * Country represented in the ASDO équipe

5 5 A knowledge management perspective After a decade of efforts from EC, to try and take stock of the situation: –meta-analysis on gender and science research –benchmarking of positive action schemes (PRAGES) Request: to go and see what is being promoted in support of gender equality in S&T. Targeted countries: USA, Canada, Australia Analysing the programmes not to produce new knowledge to be generalised about them, but to co-ordinate existing one, supporting the dissemination of effective social technologies

6 6 Some more features… General approach: –micro and not macro-policies –diversity of schemes and promoters –qualitative methodology (analysed programmes do not constitute a representative sample!) Expected outputs: –database of programmes intensive approach –guidelines extensive approach

7 7 Benchmarking as a KM approach Origin: management studies (1970s) Definitions: –process of identification, understanding and adaptation of practices of other organisations, to improve ones own performance (Cook S., 1995) –permanent process of learning and continuous quality improvement (Benchmarking Centre, 1997) Procedure: identification of benchmarks, structural and procedural enablers, assessment of transferability potential Key task: Choosing the relevant process/impact

8 8 What and how to benchmark? In our case programmes are the most diverse: need to identify a common ground (WHAT) In our case it is impossible to provide a traditional impact assessment of so many programmes, at different stages of implementation, in the projects time-frame. Moreover, some impacts are particularly difficult to quantify (common use of indirect or proxy indicators): need to agree on an operational concept of impact, to the aim of this project (HOW)

9 9 WHAT: three impact areas Reducing the diversity of programmes to three main impact areas to benchmark: –Friendliness of the environment to women in S&T settings –Awareness of the gender dimension in S&T in the making –Support to womens leadership in the new social context for S&T

10 10 HOW: operational concept of impact On the basis of a standardised qualitative assessment, an impact has been recorded on one of the three areas when a plausible connection has emerged between an orientation towards change and consistent implemented actions in that area The notion is hybrid: it takes into account both cognitive orientation and concrete action, and identifies, more precisely, conditions for impact

11 11 Good practices? Convention to include programmes in the database: –explicit aim of producing an impact on one of the three areas identified –prima facie existence of consistent measures Convention to attribute programmes an impact on one of the areas: –actual consistency of measures –good quality of programme As impacts, good practices are hybrid social phenomena, including both cognitive and operational elements. As impacts, they are probabilistic good practices

12 12 Project design 1Networking (Milan – Statale) PROMOTERS (1,112 ) 2 Collection of information on the programmes (Milan – Bicocca) QUESTIONNAIRES (125 ) 1° PROGRAMMES DATABASE (109) 3Benchmarking (ASDO/Aarhus) 2° PROGRAMMES DATABASE (109) 4Co-ordinating information (ASDO) GUIDELINES (71 PROGRAMMES)

13 13 Respondents by country - 1 Australia23 United States18 Canada11 Germany8 Italy7 Spain7 United Kingdom7 Denmark4 France4 Austria3 European programmes3

14 14 Respondents by country - 2 Finland2 Norway2 Slovenia2 Belgium1 Czech Republic1 Estonia1 Greece1 Malta1 The Netherlands1 Sweden1 Switzerland1

15 15 Respondents by geographical area

16 16 Respondents by institutional sector

17 Types of actions implemented - 1 Typen.% Networking8175.7 Support to career-development6863.6 Dissemination of information material6459.8 Mentoring6157 Training courses4945.8 Empowerment schemes3734.6 Mainstreaming actions3330.8 Gender-sensitive assessment2220.6 Monitoring hiring, promotions, tasks2220.6

18 Types of actions implemented - 2 Typen.% Reserved awards for women2220.6 Policy revision about promotions1917.8 Policy revision about hiring1816.8 Support during leaves1816.8 Gender-sensitive attribution of tasks1514 Targeted funding practices1413.1 Schemes for women returners1413.1 Care services1211.2 Targets for balance in decision-making1211.2

19 Types of actions implemented - 3 Typen.% Support to mobility/spouse relocation109.3 Reserved chairs for women98.4 Revision of curricula and textbooks98.4 Targets for balance in research groups98.4 Institution of quotas54.7 Single-sex degrees and courses43.7 Other TOTAL627 Average of 5 actions per programme

20 20 Quality and transferability Conditions for impact of the programmes on one of the three areas –actual implementation of consistent measures –sufficient quality of programme (relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability) Transferability potential –assessment of structural enablers (economic, technical and human resources, general context elements, etc.) –assessment of procedural enablers (methods for good practice implementation)

21 21 Impact and quality

22 22 Golden and silver benchmarks Criteria to award golden benchmarks (42): –Excellent quality (IQ 8.1 and superior) –Excellent or good impact in at least 1 area (IIMP 6.1 and superior) Criteria to award silver benchmarks (29): –Excellent or good impact in 1 area (IIMP 6.1 and superior) –(all accepted programmes at least medium in quality) Golden benchmarks may have 1, 2 or 3 silver benchmarks (a total of 110 silver benchmarks)

23 23 Silver benchmarks by impact area

24 24 Transferability descriptors A.Information disclosure B.Replication occurred C.Enablers: structural factors D.Enablers: process factors E.Obstacles F.Tips from the promoters

25 25 Online database (web page) - 1

26 26 Online database (web page) - 2

27 27 Online database (web page) - 3

28 28 Online database (web page) - 4

29 29 Online database (web page) - 5

30 30 Online database (web page) - 6

31 31 Online database (web page) - 7

32 32 Online database (web page) - 8

33 33 Online database (web page) - 9

34 34 Online database (web page) - 10

35 35 Online database (web page) - 11

36 36 Online database (web page) - 12

37 37 The guidelines Practical aim: not a scientific report, but addressing scientists Not discussing theory, but using theory to frame practice and help understand its significance A lot of ideas in short examples, but linkage to tools allowing to go more in depth (database and specific links) Not to be read from cover to cover: organised by problems to address

38 38 Structure of the guidelines Introduction Part A. Women and science: Problems and issues at stake Part B. A friendly environment for women Part C. Gender-aware science Part D. Womens leadership of science in a changing society Part E. Programmes that work Bibliography Appendix one: Summary charts of the three strategies Appendix two: Summary charts of the tools, the action patterns and the methodological orientations

39 39 More contents REVIEW PROCESS –3 members of the international Board of Advisors –20 international experts –71 respondents TO BE INSERTED –Executive summary –How to use the guidelines –Methodological note (Appendix three) –Linguistic edits –Specific amendments

40 40 Strategy 1: Fighting the chilly climate Friendliness of the environment to women in S&T settings Awareness of the gender dimension in S&T in the making Support to womens leadership in the new social context for S&T Actions promoting change in organisational culture and formal/informal behaviours Actions promoting work-life balance Actions supporting early-stage career- development

41 41 Strategy 2: Fighting gender-blind science Friendliness of the environment to women in S&T settings Awareness of the gender dimension in S&T in the making Support to womens leadership in the new social context for S&T Actions challenging gender stereotypes Actions fighting horizontal segregation Actions aimed at gendering S&T contents and methods

42 42 Strategy 3: Fighting women under-representation Friendliness of the environment to women in S&T settings Awareness of the gender dimension in S&T in the making Support to womens leadership in the new social context for S&T Actions promoting womens leadership in the practice of research Actions promoting womens leadership in the management of research Actions promoting womens leadership in scientific communication Actions promoting womens leadership in innovation processes and science-society relationships

43 43 Part A. Women and science: Problems and issues at stake Impact assessment Part B: A friendly environment for women Impact assessment Part C: Gender- aware science Impact assessment Part D: Womens leadership of science in a changing society Trasferability + quality assessmentt Part E: Programmes that work From the database to the guidelines

44 44 Part A – Women and science Chapter One From figures to risks Looking at the numbers Three areas of risks Chapter two From risks to strategies 1.Finding solutions 2.Three strategies

45 45 Structure of parts B, C and D Each part is devoted to one of the three strategies –Each strategy comprises a variable number of objectives Each objective is broken down in recommendations –For each recommendation concrete lines of actions are reported »Lines of actions are illustrated by examples from the database

46 46 Part B – STRATEGY: A friendly environment for women Objective 1: Changing culture and behaviours Objective 2: Promoting work-life balance Objective 3: Supporting early-stage career-development

47 47 Obj. 3: Early-stage career-development Rec. 9 – Sustaining early-career researchers through policy and regulation Rec. 10 – Providing personal assistance and training for early-career researchers Rec. 11 – Increasing candidate pool diversity for hiring and promotions Rec. 12 – Providing additional resources for womens professional development

48 48 Obj. 3: Early-stage career-development Recommendation 12: Providing additional resources for womens professional development Line of action: Establish dedicated funds Five examples: –New Mexico State University/USA –Kansas State University/USA –VINMER/Sweden –UW-Madison, WISELI programme/USA –CSIRO/Australia

49 49 CSIRO grants for women returners Some universities established programmes specifically aimed at preventing the attrition of women who have already started a scientific career because of lack of support for life course events. The strategy adopted by CSIRO (Australias Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) is providing grants to women returners. It consists of the delivery of grants of up to AUS $ 35,000 each to support researchers to re-establish themselves and re-connect with research underway in their field. Several awards are offered each year.

50 50 Part C – STRATEGY: Gender-aware science Objective 1: Overcoming stereotypes of women and science Objective 2: Affecting scientific contents and methods

51 51 Obj. 2: Affecting scientific contents and methods Rec. 15 – Dismantling the myth of gender-neutral science Rec. 16 – Incorporating gender in S&T education Rec. 17 – Gendering research design Rec. 18 – Acknowledging womens vision and expectations

52 52 Obj. 2: Affecting scientific contents and methods Recommendation 17: Gendering research design Line of action: Devise practical or institutional tools to insert gender in research design Four examples: –Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (Gemany) –Austrian Research Promotion Agency –European Commission

53 53 Check-list for product design The above-mentioned German public research agency Fraunhofer Gesellschaft has developed a questionnaire addressing engineers working in the field of technological development. The questionnaire is structured in the form of a check-list finalised at verifying if gender aspects were included in product design, thus adopting a tool engineers are familiar with. Examples are also provided about the negative impact on product development and success of not integrating gender.

54 54 Part D – STRATEGY: Womens leadership Objective 1: Supporting women in attaining key positions in the practice of research Objective 2: Supporting women in attaining key positions in the management of research Objective 3: Strengthening womens visibility and their role in communication Objective 4: Increasing womens influence in innovation and science- society relationships

55 55 Obj. 4: Womens leadership of innovation processes and science-society relationship Rec. 31 – Strengthening womens orientation and skills connected with innovation and the social management of technology Rec. 32 – Providing women with resources and opportunities to approach top positions in innovation

56 56 Obj. 4: Womens leadership of innovation processes and science-society relationship Recommendation 31: Strengthening womens orientation and skills connected with innovation and the social management of technology Line of action: Promote new research environments linking innovation and diversity Two examples: –Austrian Research Promotion Agency –Trentino School of management (Italy)

57 57 Laura Bassi Centres of Expertise The publicly-funded w-fForte – Laura Bassi Centres of Expertise programme, promoted by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, established new innovation-oriented research centres. The core strategy is that of pursuing innovation through diversity, emphasising trans- disciplinarity, advanced forms of knowledge transfer, public- private partnership, cultural and gender diversity of the work environment and project-oriented management. All the research centres (six in all) are led by women and their research teams have a gender balanced composition. The programme is conceived as a learning initiative, to be subjected to transparent evaluation procedures, the results of which should provide important information on how to better link innovation and gender equality.

58 58 Part E: Programmes that work Map of tools (31) Action patterns (30, distributed in the 4 quality dimensions considered) Methodological orientations (7)

59 59 Tools 1.Awards and recognition 2.Best practice collection 3.Books and reports 4.Charters 5.Childcare services 6.Coaching 7.Committees 8.Consultations 9.Databases 10.Direct contact 11.Dissemination and guidance packages 12.Expressive and artistic tools 13.Grants, loans and subsidies 14.Information desks 15.Institutional arrangements 16.Lobbying 17.Media campaigns 18.Meetings 19.Mentoring 20.Monitoring and evaluation tools 21.Networks and networking 22.On-demand services 23.Organisational arrangements 24.Planning 25.Public communication tools 26.Regulations 27.Research tools 28.Social events 29.Training courses, lessons and seminars 30.Web based discussion spaces 31.Websites

60 60 Action patterns/relevance 1.Knowledge/Generating knowledge about the problem 2.Participation/Using participatory approaches in programme planning 3.Diversity/Framing gender issues in the broader context of diversity issues 4.Lessons learned/Capitalising local past experiences and the experiences of others 5.Social capital/Using and enlarging the social capital of the programme 6.Organisation leaders/Bringing organisations leaders on one own side 7.Organisational culture and structure/Aligning the programme to the organisations culture and structure 8.Scope and target/Keeping a unitary approach while addressing a broad target 9.Awareness/Supporting all programmes with awareness raising and sensitisation activities

61 61 Action patterns/effectiveness 1.Staff/Tightening the programme to a motivated, experienced, diversified and active core of people 2.Voluntary action/Promoting voluntary action in support to the programme 3.Programme leadership/Ensuring continuity in the programme leadership 4.Planning/Developing public, long-term and realistic action plans 5.Monitoring and assessment/Endowing programmes with effective monitoring and assessments systems 6.Partnerships/Promoting inclusive partnerships involving key actors 7.Transparency and transferability/Making programme transparent and transferable to external actors 8.Diversification/Diversifying actors and tools

62 62 Action patterns/efficiency 1.Funding mix/Diversifying financing sources as far as possible 2.Adherence to plans/Keeping a flexible but close adherence to the established action plans 3.Accounting and management/Providing programme with professional accounting and resource management systems 4.Scenarios/Timely developing scenarios for future resource needs and sources 5.Co-operation/Widening co-operation networks to increase access to resources 6.Staff capacities/Reinforcing staff capacities on resource raising and management

63 63 Action patterns/sustainability 1.Sustainability planning/Plan sustainability from the very beginning 2.Fund-raising/Developing sustainability-oriented initiatives while the programme is still running 3.Mens involvement/Involving men in the promotion and implementation of the programme 4.Programme visibility/Making the programme as visible as possible 5.Partners commitment/Promoting a direct engagement of partners 6.Organisational flexibility/Envisaging flexible organisational solutions 7.Institutional embeddedness/Shooting for progressive embeddedness of the programme in the organisation

64 64 Methodological orientations Linking action to knowledge Creating institutional places for gender issues Looking for alliances and support Adopting an integrated approach Connecting gender and diversity issues to science development Promoting a community of practices Protecting programmes vitality

65 65 Different use of the parts Parts B, C and D: providing ideas and examples already implemented and reasonably reliable, linking them not to the tools used (f.i. mentoring), but to the general objectives pursued Part E : cross-cutting through the strategies, providing hints on the basic features needed to implement successful programmes, and showing the different strategic orientations that tools can have

66 66 Examples Many examples, not described in detail, but sketching a wealth of ideas for the different strategies and objectives To get more information and access the resources many make available: –specific links of the different initiatives on the programmes web pages –the database, to search for the most successful initiatives of a kind and learn about transferability issues, specific enablers and obstacles Breaking programmes to pieces

67 67 In conclusion The guidelines co-ordinate information about existing programmes to help implement integrated efforts –as for the strategies –as for the tools Integration may be pursued even in small programmes The structure of the guidelines has been devised to show the variety of approaches that can be adopted, and at the same time help manage problems of adaptation to different national, institutional and organisational contexts, by its analytic approach and setup

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