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Ingrid Schoon Institute of Education, University of London In collaboration with Andy Ross, Peter Martin, and Steven Hope Gender differentiation in transitions.

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Presentation on theme: "Ingrid Schoon Institute of Education, University of London In collaboration with Andy Ross, Peter Martin, and Steven Hope Gender differentiation in transitions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ingrid Schoon Institute of Education, University of London In collaboration with Andy Ross, Peter Martin, and Steven Hope Gender differentiation in transitions to work and family-related roles ESRC Gender Equality Network (GeNet) International Conference City University London, 28 March 2008

2 Transitions and Career Trajectories Transitions: leaving ft education entry to paid employment step into committed relationship parenthood Career trajectories: dynamic context in which transitions take place

3 Transitions in Context: A Life course approach Embeddedness of human development in a changing socio-historical context Social change and its influence on timing and sequencing of transitions Reciprocal interactions between individual and context Linked lives: transgenerational approach Development as life long process: accumulation of experiences

4 Gender and context Life course as personal construction Selective processes Interests and goals Role expectations and demands

5 Lives in Context Two British Birth Cohort Studies born 12 years apart in 1958 and 1970 : From Golden Age to Crisis Decades Changing labour market Expansion of the education system Increasing participation of women in the labour market

6 Two National British Birth Cohorts Age of Cohort Members by Historical Events National Child Development Study (NCDS): n=17,415 Birth Age 7 Age 11 Age 16 Age 23Age 33 Age British Cohort Study (BCS70): n=16,571 Birth Age 5 Age 10 Age 16 Age 26 Age Era of liberalisation Revival of Feminist movement End of baby boom Oil crisis New technologies Onset of recession Collapse of housing market Second wave of recession Onset of recovery Boom Economy Recession Economy Knowledge Economy

7 Transitions in Times of Social Change De-standardisation prolonged education delayed step into financial independence delayed step into family formation Individualisation Differentiation slow versus fast transitions gender differences

8 Timing of Transitions Focus on Key Transitions: Entry into full-time Employment Step into Parenthood

9 Employment & Parenthood (Men only)

10 Employment & Parenthood (Women only)

11 Changing Transitions Extended education Delayed step into parenthood Increasing female attachment to labour market Persistent gender differences: Timing of transitions Interdependence of transitions

12 Differentiation of transitions: Slow versus fast track transitions Fast track: leaving school by age 16 Intermediate: leaving school between 17 and 18 Slow track: leaving school after age 19 (academic track)

13 Fast versus slow track transition

14 Antecedents to transition pathways Socio-economic family background Gender Socialisation experiences Individual characteristics (capabilities, goals, motivation) Socio-historical context

15 Predictors for staying on in ft education (academic track) Socio-economic Family Background Own Characteristics R2R2 NCDS men NCDS women BCS70 men BCS70 women Socio-economic family background: Parental social class, mothers education, mothers age at first birth Own characteristics: exam at age 16, school engagement, job aspirations (Hierarchical Regression Model: Nagelkerke R2 change and overall R2 )

16 Increasing Individualisation? Greater importance of individual characteristics in shaping transitions Or Changing norms and expectations? General increase in further education Increasing importance of academic credentials Increasing participation of women in continued education

17 Developmental-Contextual Model of Career Development Aims to uncover processes by which the family and the larger societal context influence individual commitment and pursuit of a career Takes developmental perspective (considering timing and biographical experiences) Examines multiple pathways shaping career development in men and women Replication of model in two birth cohorts Testing for gender and cohort differences in pathway coefficients

18 Developmental-Contextual Model of Career Development Birth Age 16 Age 30/33 Parental Social Class Material Hardship Parental Educational Expectations School Motivation Job aspirations Exam Score Age at first birth Own occupational status Family background Individual agency factors Parenthood histories Adult occupational attainment Proximal family environment Schoon, Martin & Ross, 2007 Age 16-29

19 Findings Persisting social inequalities Influence of social background is mediated via socialisation experiences in the family Career development takes place within a life planning framework Early transitions influence later outcomes Time inequality as major social divide

20 The role of school engagement Possible leverage for intervention Is influenced by socialisation experiences Reflects role choices and connection between person and activity Influences timing of transitions

21 School engagement A multidimensional construct: Emotion (reactions to school) Cognition (planning and goal setting) Behaviour (involvement and effort) (Fedricks et al. 2004) Often used interchangeably with motivation (why we do what we do), although concept emphasis more what people do

22 Transgenerational Model of Status Attainment Life course model: Considers both social structure and individual factors in shaping careers Accounts for the context in which individual agency takes place Considers importance of timing of transitions and age-specific developmental tasks

23 Transgenerational Model of Status Attainment Academic Capability Family Social Status School Engagement Transition behaviour Own Social Status ChildhoodAdolescenceAdulthood

24 Measures Family Social Status: parental social class, parental education Academic capability/IQ NCDS: General Ability Test BCS70: British Ability Scales (BAS) School engagement: School motivation, educational aspirations, occupational aspirations Transition behaviour: Age leaving school, timing of parenthood Own social status: own social class, highest qualifications

25 Transgenerational Model of Status Attainment (Women only: NCDS/BCS70) Academic Capability Family Social Status School Engagement Timing of Transitions Own Social Status Childhood Age 16 Ages 16-29Age 30/33.52/.60.28/.23.07/.05 ns.21/ ns /.06.44/.44.27/.20.72/.82.56/.53 Model Fit: NCDS: CFI=0.998; rmsea=0.032 / BCS70: CFI=0.996; rmsea=0.033

26 Transgenerational Model of Status Attainment (Men only: NCDS/BCS70) Academic Capability Family Social Status School Engagement Timing of Transitions Own Social Status Childhood Age 16 Ages 16-29Age 30/33.48/.59.32/.19.05/.05 ns.27/.22.08/.11.48/.58.20/.15.80/.84.57/.58 Model Fit: NCDS: CFI=0.999; rmsea=0.020 / BCS70: CFI=0.998; rmsea=0.021

27 School engagement and long- term outcomes School engagement significantly predicts timing of transition behaviour School engagement, ability, and social background are significant determinants of careers Cognitive ability and social class operate in part via school engagement in influencing transition behaviour

28 School Engagement Primacy of socio-cultural influences over individual ability in predicting school engagement, especially among men suggests malleability possible role of social values and/or family support alternative expectation theory possible role of school environment

29 Role of ability more strongly related to adult social status than to transition behaviour Effects of cognitive ability increase with age Effects of social background decrease with age

30 Time inequality Social status is traditionally measured in employment focused and financial terms Time inequality as a major social divide: Timing of life course transitions is significantly influenced by social background Timing of transitions is a particular issue for women

31 Conclusion Need for models that move beyond static snapshots to dynamic understanding of transitions and careers Interventions aiming to prevent early school drop-out and early parenthood should address school engagement as an important leverage for shaping transition behaviours Acknowledge multiple temporal perspectives Support opportunities for career path flexibilities

32 Thank you Thank you


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