Presentation on theme: "Challenges and difficulties of social integration of Gypsy communities in Hungary János Girán honorary research associate University of Hull Institute."— Presentation transcript:
Challenges and difficulties of social integration of Gypsy communities in Hungary János Girán honorary research associate University of Hull Institute of Learning Centre for Education Studies
Distribution of Gypsy population in Europe 0,1-0,9% 2,0-2,9% 1,0-1,9% 3,0-3,9% < <4,0% Source: www.romaweb.hu
Distribution of Gypsy population in Hungary HUNGARY ROMANIA AUSTRIA SLOVAKIA SERBIA SLOVENIA CROATIA UKRAINE Source: Hungarian Statistic Office Beas Romungro Lovari / Vlach
Groups of Hungarian Gypsies Romungro Lovari / Vlach Beas Arriving Traditional language Traditional professions Middle Ages Enlightenment Ages Lost Hungarian language End of 19 th Century archaic dialect of Romanian language Lovari language Lost Musicians Wood carving & constructing works with sun-dried clay bricks Metal works & cattle trading
Beginning of migration When and why the Gypsies left their original territories has not yet been convincingly clarified. Prolonged stays in territories of different cultures. Entrance to Europe from Turkey. Arriving to Hungary via the Balkans.
Middle Ages First appearance of Gypsy groups in the Hungarian Kingdom was in the early 15 th Century probably fleeing from the conquering Turks (Ottomans) in the Balkans. Letter of Safe Conduct: a freedom and a saved travelling opportunity for a century. The Hungarian Kingdom welcomed them due to their traditional professions.
Enlightenment Ages In the beginning of the 18 th Century a new wave of Gypsy immigrants arrived from Moldavia and Walachia. Nomadic lifestyle versus peasant and bourgeois lifestyle forced settling prohibition of use of the name Gypsy restriction of Gypsy marriages compulsory elementary school education for the children of the Gypsy families prohibition of use of Gypsy language After all the forced assimilation was unsuccessful.
End of 19 th and the early 20 th Century The last wave of Gypsy immigrants arrived from Walachia. Living together lacking conflicts with the members of the majority of the society but out of the local community. The crucial barrier of social integration: the missing link. During the 2 nd World War resolvig the Gypsy question more than 5000 Gypsy people lead to genocide.
The era of socialism (1948-1989) The forgotten (excluded?) group. A small step toward the integration: declaration of the fundamental principles of Gypsy policy for the next few decades. The first comprehensive nationwide sociological research programme on Gypsy population. Further research initiatives on specific subjects connected with the everyday life of the Gypsy groups.
After the political system shift In the crisis again. The very hard intention to access into the European Union forced the government –doing affirmative actions to help the integration of Gypsy groups, and –doing efforts stopping the negative discrimination, segregation and social exclusion processes as well. Disappointment with social and economical expectations and it effected the growing nationalism and racism; increasing prejudice and the naked violence against the Gypsy groups.
Summary During the last 500 years different Gypsy groups arrived to Hungary but their cultural, social and economical state of development was always on lower level than the contemporary state of development of the Hungarian society. In the case of Gypsy groups there was a lack of intention to the social integration, and in the case of non-gypsy groups there was a lack of tolerance toward them. In every society in every time some black sheep are needed.