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Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning This presentation is designed to introduce you to some of the basic ideas associated with computers.

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Presentation on theme: "Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning This presentation is designed to introduce you to some of the basic ideas associated with computers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning This presentation is designed to introduce you to some of the basic ideas associated with computers and learning. This lecture is backed up with more detailed information that has been placed at the course web-site: http://www.hull.ac.uk/php/edskas/

2 Click here to go to next slide Course Map: Theories of learning and their impact on educational technology Thorndike and associationism (1898; 1912) Pavlov and classical conditioning (1902) Watson and behaviourism (1918) Skinner and programmed learning (1954) Piaget and constructivism (1929) Vygotsky and constructivism (1930) Computer-based instruction e.g. ILS (1960s - 2004) Papert and LOGO (1980) Computer Mediated Communication e.g. the internet and e-mail (1990s) Audio Visual Instruction: theories of realism (1950) Comenius Orbus Pictus (1658) E-Learning and Multi-media (1990s)

3 Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning 1943 Modern computing can probably be traced back to the Colossus an electronic computer built in Britain at the end 1943 and designed to crack the German coding system - Lorenz cipher.

4 Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning the early years of computing

5 Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning a view of 2004 from 1968

6 Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning An interesting brief history of the computer-based learning projects that led to integrated learning systems is at: http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory /1960.html

7 Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning: ILS integrated learning system

8 Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning: ILS management system

9 Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning: ILS management system

10 Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning: IBM Partnership IBM Partnership In 1963, IBM established a partnership with Stanford University's Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences (IMSSS), directed by Patrick Suppes, to develop the first comprehensive CAI elementary school curriculum which was implemented on a large scale in schools in both California and Mississippi. IBM Partnership Computer Curriculum CorporationComputer Curriculum Corporation (CCC) In 1967, the Computer Curriculum Corporation (CCC) was formed to market the materials developed through the IBM partnership. Computer Curriculum Corporation

11 Click here to go to next slide Computers and learning: examples of software The programmes from this 1963 project have been refined over 40 years and have been studied in UK schools (research results will be presented later in this programme). Click below to be taken to examples of the software available. When you quit the examples you will return to this page in the programme. Click here for examples of software developed from this programme and available through the SuccessMaker programme distributed by Research Machines in the UK examples of softwareexamples of software

12 Integrated Learning Systems: a summary of the research evaluations The UK ILS Evaluations: Final Report, BECTa, 1998 (ISBN 1853794147).qJIUC W8 Integrated learning systems : a report on phase II of the pilot evaluation of ILS in the UK, NCET, 1996 (ISBN 1853793582) Coventry : NCET. JIUC I6 Integrated learning systems : a report of the pilot evaluation of ILS in the UK - January 1994 to July 1994 / compiled by the National Council for Educational Technology, 1994 (ISBN/ISSN 1853793108), Coventry : NCET. JIUC I6 Useful books on ILS: Integrated learning systems : potential into practice / edited by Jean D.M. Underwood, Jenny Brown, 1997, (ISBN 0435096907) Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Educational Technology. JIUC I6 ILS : a guide to good practice, McFarlane, Angela, 1999 (ISBN 1853794309), Coventry : British Educational Communications and Technology Agency. q JIUC M1

13 Integrated Learning Systems: a summary of the research evaluations The following slides have extracts from the UK evaluations of (mainly) the SuccessMaker Integrated Learning System. There are copies (3) of each report (see previous slide for details) in the Brynmor Jones Library at Hull.

14 Phase 1: small scale studies, evaluating competing systems (SuccessMake and Global Maths) Effect Size link Effect Size link Effect Size link

15 Phase two:

16 Were the learning gains in numeracy found in Phase 1 schools repeated in Phase 2 schools? Were the learning gains in numeracy found in Phase 1 schools repeated in Phase 2 schools?

17 Phase two: Final Maths Score, School A

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19 Definition of Effect Size The Effect Size is the difference in performance between the ILS and Control group, as expressed as a proportion of one standard deviation (SD), of pre-trial scores for the combined ILS and control groups. The Effect Size is the difference in performance between the ILS and Control group, as expressed as a proportion of one standard deviation (SD), of pre-trial scores for the combined ILS and control groups.

20 Phase two: Did pupils who continued to use SuccessMaker for 18 months continue to make gains? Did pupils who continued to use SuccessMaker for 18 months continue to make gains?

21 Phase two: School D: KS2 SuccessMaker group continued to gain. (No statistical comparison because control not tested in Phase 1) School D: KS2 SuccessMaker group continued to gain. (No statistical comparison because control not tested in Phase 1) School E: KS3 SuccessMaker group continued to gain, but rate of gain slowed slightly (school had reduced sessions from 5 to 3 per week). School E: KS3 SuccessMaker group continued to gain, but rate of gain slowed slightly (school had reduced sessions from 5 to 3 per week). Effect Size over 18 months = +0.8

22 Phase two: Effect Size = 0.8, School E

23 Phase two: Pupils continuing to use SM over 18 months maintained gains largely acquired during the first phase. Pupil interviews revealed demotivation, however, and indicated that some pupils might welcome a break from ILS at this point. Pupils continuing to use SM over 18 months maintained gains largely acquired during the first phase. Pupil interviews revealed demotivation, however, and indicated that some pupils might welcome a break from ILS at this point.

24 Phase two: Did pupils who stopped using the system maintain their advantage? Did pupils who stopped using the system maintain their advantage?

25 Phase two: School D, KS2/3, SM children moving on to secondary schools maintained their advantage (no analysis available because control not tested in Phase 1) School D, KS2/3, SM children moving on to secondary schools maintained their advantage (no analysis available because control not tested in Phase 1) School E, KS3, SM group continued to make gains over the control group even though they had stopped using the system (ES = 0.35) School E, KS3, SM group continued to make gains over the control group even though they had stopped using the system (ES = 0.35)

26 Phase two: Impact of time (Primary)

27 Phase two: Impact of time (Secondary)

28 Phase two: Impact of time Period of time over which pupil has access to the system Period of time over which pupil has access to the system Frequency of sessions Frequency of sessions Response time to questions Response time to questions

29 Phase two: Impact of time A minimum time on the system of at least 3 sessions of 30 minutes per week for learning gains. A minimum time on the system of at least 3 sessions of 30 minutes per week for learning gains.

30 Literacy No gains were made in literacy in Phase 1 studies No gains were made in literacy in Phase 1 studies

31 Literacy, Phase 2 School A, KS2, SM pupils gained on average a reading age of 8.4 months compared with control pupils who gained only 2.7 months (ES = 0.55) School A, KS2, SM pupils gained on average a reading age of 8.4 months compared with control pupils who gained only 2.7 months (ES = 0.55) School M, KS3, SM pupils gained on average a reading age of 7 months compared with control pupils who gained only 1 month (ES = 0.6) School M, KS3, SM pupils gained on average a reading age of 7 months compared with control pupils who gained only 1 month (ES = 0.6)

32 Literacy, Phase 2 School U, KS2, Control group outperformed SM group (ES = -0.4). For this school all SM results were negative. School U, KS2, Control group outperformed SM group (ES = -0.4). For this school all SM results were negative. Supervision very important! Supervision very important!

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71 Kulik, J. A. (1994): Meta-analytic studies of findings on Computer- based learning [Chapter 1, p 9-33]. In E. L. Baker and H. F. ONeil (Eds) Technology Assessment in Education and Training. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum COPY IN SHORT LOAN COLLECTION

72 Kulik, 1994: Meta-analytic studies of findings on Computer-based learning Go to Effect Size

73 Kulik, 1994: Meta-analytic studies of findings on Computer-based learning

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76 Computer-based learning, Level I

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79 Computer-based learning, Level II

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88 Computer-based learning, Level III

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90 Computer-based tutoring vs other innovations

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92 Effect Size 34% 16% 50% 1 SD

93 +10%34% 16% 50% 1 SD +0.25 SD 60% Effect Size

94 +19%34% 16% 50% 1 SD +0.50 SD 69% Effect Size

95 +27%34% 16% 50% 1 SD +0.75 SD 77% Effect Size

96 34% 16% 50% 1 SD 84% Effect Size Back to page 14 Back to page 14 Back to page 14


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