5Project Life Cycle Conception Phase (The Idea) Definition Phase (The Plan)Initiation Phase (The Team)PLANImplementation Phase (The Work)DOEvaluation Phase (The Wrap-up)REVIEW
6The Quad Chart - Guided Tour NAME/TITLEWHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE?WHAT FOR?WHAT IS THE RESULT?WHO IS PROJECT FOR?WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)?WHO WILL IT INVOLVE?WHEN ARE WE FINISHED?WHAT CAN BE MEASURED?HOW DO IMEASURE SUCCESS?GOALS!WHAT MAKES THEPROJECT A SUCCESS?
7Planning is an iterative process TITLEPURPOSECUSTOMER OR AUDIENCE(AIMS/OBJECTIVES)(DRIVERS / SUPPORTERS / OBSERVERS)DESIRED END RESULTMEASURES OF SUCCESS(CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS)(STANDARDS / CRITERIA)
8Stakeholders vs Audience The “definition” of stakeholder that we have been using so far is that a stakeholder is “anybody who is affected/impacted by what you are trying to do”. It is usually taken to infer that it primarily includes those people who are affected by the project; and therefore have an interest in it.
9Stakeholders – ‘UCCASSDO’ UserCustomer or ClientConsumerAudienceSupporterSupplierDriverOther
10It may be useful at this stage to use the term Audience rather than stakeholder Using ‘Audience’ might allow us to involve more people.It allows us to look at people/parties who are affected by/impacted by our project AND those who may not be affected by it……but may be interested in it.And it might be necessary to consider them
11Audience might include A range of regulatory bodies,The Local Council and/or councillorsMPsEnvironment AgencyProfessional bodiesHealth & Safety Executive
12So we have a slightly revised Quad Chart TITLEPURPOSEAUDIENCE(AIMS/OBJECTIVES)(DRIVERS / SUPPORTERS / OBSERVERS)WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE?WHAT FOR?WHAT IS THE RESULT?WHO IS PROJECT FOR?WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)?WHO WILL IT INVOLVE?DESIRED END RESULTMEASURES OF SUCCESSGOALS!WHAT MAKES THEPROJECT A SUCCESS?(CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS)(STANDARDS / CRITERIA)WHEN ARE WE FINISHED?WHAT CAN BE MEASURED?HOW DO IMEASURE SUCCESS?MEASURABLE /UNMEASURABLEQUALITATIVE /QUANTITATIVE
13Desired outcomes or critical outcomes for project success? It’s also useful at this stage to refine our QUAD chart a little more by thinking about Critical Success Factors rather than desired outcomes.Desired outcomes are less specific.Critical outcomes are those that are essential for the project to be successful
14Quad Chart WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE? WHAT FOR? WHAT IS THE RESULT? TITLEPURPOSEAUDIENCE(AIMS/OBJECTIVES)(DRIVERS / SUPPORTERS / OBSERVERS)WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE?WHAT FOR?WHAT IS THE RESULT?WHO IS PROJECT FOR?WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)?WHO WILL IT INVOLVE?(DESIRED END RESULT)MEASURES OF SUCCESSGOALS!WHAT MAKES THEPROJECT A SUCCESS?CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS(STANDARDS / CRITERIA)WHEN ARE WE FINISHED?WHAT CAN BE MEASURED?HOW DO IMEASURE SUCCESS?MEASURABLE /UNMEASURABLEQUALITATIVE /QUANTITATIVE
15What about ‘thing’s that aren’t critical? Maybe they are secondary benefits or underlying things - values, passion, ethics?
16Quad Chart (with 7 boxes) ETHICSVALUESPASSIONWHAT IS THE MOTIVATION?SECONDARY BENEFITS(UNMEASURABLE)
17It’s often the underlying values, passion and ethics that are ‘what the project is all about’ or that ‘buys people in’ to it.Particularly important to consider it.
18Homework Review – How was it for you? Too easy………?That’s why we need to review our QUAD chartsAnd consider the audience as well as the stakeholders…
19The next stage Reviewing our QUAD chart Converting desired outcomes into critical success factorsBroadening out the stakeholders into an audienceChecking that our list of assumptions is still valid and correct
20QUAD charts refinedUsing a real life example of a project for schools in Hull LEA or we can use one or more of your projects?We will look at what has been written by the new project manager in each of the four QUAD chart boxes
21EXAMPLE QUAD chart Purpose (Aims & Objectives) To develop a strategy for best practice in the use of ICT & E-learning in Hull SchoolsTo increase & expand the use of ICT in teaching for Hull schoolsDevelop an ICT based CPD route for Hull teachers To assist in the raising of attainment through the effective use of ICT and E-learning, including improving student’s attitudes towards learningTo improve school’s retention of teaching staff
22Audience (Stakeholders, Customers, Users, Consumers) Hull LEAHull teachersTCS schemeUniversity of Hull CASS DeptUniversity of Hull Computer Science DeptParents of pupilsTraining providers
23Measures of Success (Standards/ Criteria) Actual changes in classroom practiceActual achievements in ICT capabilityStrategy in place within the LEACPD route for all teachers written into the strategyEventual improvement in the retention of teachers’ figuresEventual reflection of improved teaching/learning experience through GCSE/SAT results (long term)The financial benefits associated with the longer term measures of successThe publication of project/research findings
24Desired End Result (Critical Success Factors) - CSFs To be able to demonstrate ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes/practice towards the use of ICT in classroomsTo have developed a strategy for local and regional implementationTo have received feedback reinforcing the satisfaction of objectivesTo be able to disseminate findings
27TASK 1: Evaluating Critical Success Factors & Measures Critical Success Factors - are they actually measurable?Are they SMART? Are CRAP?Are measures quantitative (using figures) or qualitative?In what way can they be measured? (+ how?)Do we have things that are really secondary benefits rather than CSFs?But first an example
28Example using one of the CSFs or we can use one of yours “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes towards the use of ICT in the classroom”.Is there a measure?Measure – there is noneSolution – construct a survey of attitudes before and after the implementation of a strategy.
29Example using one of the CSFs “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes towards the use of ICT in the classroom”.Where should the apostrophe be?Hmm – let us see the next slide
30Example using one of the CSFs “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes towards the use of ICT in the classroom”.Where is the missing apostrophe?Are we talking about one teacher – teacher’s ?Are we talking about all teachers – teachers’ ?It is attitudes not attitude, therefore it’s teachers’.
31Example“to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers’ practice in the use of ICT in the classroom” .Measure – actual changes in classroom practice.Solution – establish an ‘as is’ picture of current practices and compare them with practices at a given point in time in future. (and this might be a whole project within itself).
32Key question you should ask A Key question “Is the project a failure without this?”. If the answer is No then it is not a critical success factor.That’s slightly different from asking “is this necessary for the project to be successful?”
33Group Work Exercise CSFs - are they actually measurable? Are they SMART? Are they CRAP?Do the CSFs relate to the rest of the QUAD chart?Do we have things that are really secondary benefits rather than CSFs?Are measures quantitative (using figures) or qualitative?In what way can they be measured? (+ how?)“Is the project a failure without it?”.
34Stakeholders revisited Establishing and Identifying who your stakeholders & audience are.We’ll use audience for this part of the process.Remember UCCASSDO acronym
35UCASSADO acronym User Customer or Client Consumer Audience Supporter SupplierDriverOther
36Motivation – why bother identifying who our audience is? Ensures that you don’t miss people that have roles in the project (i.e. those people that need to be informed or involved).Ensures you take account of their views if you need to.Which is not quite the same as ensuring you take account of their views if you want to.
37Need and wantWe (and the various members of the audience and stakeholders) might want our project to do many things.These things are almost certainly not the same as what we need our project to do.Re-visit the Quad chart - is it as specific and precise as it could be…You might not be able to satisfy everyone.
38Tools and techniques Categorising your audience Internal - within the department or organisation.Upper managementProject teamGroups who might be included e.g. FinanceGroups or individuals with specific knowledge or interest
39Tools and techniques Categorising your audience External – outside of the department or organisationClients or customersRegulatory agenciesSuppliers and subcontractorsThe publicSpecific ones to your project
40Categorising your audience Drivers – those who have a say in defining the result your project is to achieve.Supporters – those who help you perform your project. This includes doers and those that authorise resources. (people in Finance?).Observers – those that are interested in the activities and results of the project, but do not actually have a say in the objectives or how it is done.
41Project championPerson in a high position in the organisation who strongly supports the project.Very important to have one if at all possible.Likely to be, but not always, your line manager
42Finding a project champion They must have:Sufficient power and authority to resolve conflicts over resources, schedules and technical issues,Keen interest in the results your project will produceA willingness to have their name cited as a strong supporter of your project
43When to involve themDrivers – highest involvement at the conception definition and evaluation stages.Supporters – moderate involvement at the conception stage. Higher involvement during the rest of the project. Unless supporters are involved in trying to generate income for the project in which case they need high involvement during early stages.Observers – minimal involvement during the whole the project? Possibly; it depends on your project.
45How to involve your audience? The prime skill required here of the effective project manager is that of excellent communication skills.One-to-one meetingsGroup meetings- Formal and informal written correspondence, telephone correspondenceMarketing publicity
46Group work Categorise Your Audience Categorise audience as internal or externalCategorise audience as a driver, supporter or observerInclude additional individuals / groups that might have been missedIs there a clear project champion?
47Tool & Technique STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS A more detailed version The identification of a project's key stakeholders, an assessment of their interests and the ways in which these interests affect the project and its viability.
48Classifying stakeholders Stakeholders = persons, groups, or institutions with an interest or interests in a project. A stakeholder may not necessarily be involved/included in the decision making process. (i.e. we are now including audience as part of the stakeholders)Primary stakeholders = those who are ultimately affected either positively (aka winners or beneficiaries) or negatively (losers).Secondary stakeholders = the intermediaries or possible the Audience
49Why carry out a stakeholder analysis? Draws out the interests of stakeholders in relation to the problems which the project is seeking to address. Identifies conflicts of interest and potential conflict. VERY important! – Need & Want ! Identifies viability and impact other than in pure financial terms (includes social not just economic factors). VERY important; but often ignored. Helps provide an overall picture Helps identify relationships between different stakeholders - helps possible coalition.
50STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS - HOW TO 1 Draw up a stakeholder table identifying who the stakeholders are.2 Assess each stakeholder's importance and their relative power/influence. E.g high importance but low influence, or low importance but high influence. Can rank/rate each stakeholder's importance from (zero importance) to 10 (vital).Could rank from A to Z
51STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS - HOW TO 3 Identify risks and assumptions which will affect the project's success.What do we assume each stakeholder's response is if the project is successful?Are these assumptions realistic?Are there negative responses?What impact will negative responses have?
52Example - Stakeholder Analysis table What’s their Perspective or Viewpoint?What’s the Likely Impact on Your Project?
53Example - Stakeholder Analysis table There are various different versions on the website interestImportanceinfluencepriority
54BUTThe importance, influence and interest of a stakeholder can vary over the duration of the project.How do you prioritise yet take account of this?Depends on the length of your project.For long projects you may need to do a stakeholder analysis for each of the project’s different stages. Or you could average it out?
55Ranking a stakeholder’s priority You can useHigh, medium, lowVery high, high, medium, low, very low.0-1000-10A-ZIt’s the process that’s important not what scale or rating you use.
56Group work - Stakeholder Analysis Identify the stakeholdersIdentify each stakeholder’s interest in the project’s success (overall, or start, middle, end).Identify each stakeholder’s importance in/to the project’s success (overall, or start, middle, end).Identify each stakeholder’s influence on the project’s success (overall, or start, middle, end).Rank their priority (overall, or start, middle, end)
58Risk – All projects are a balance between 3 main things The resource(s) you have and their cost.The project’s (product’s) specification – what it is supposed to do.Time – the project’s schedule.
59Remember the project manager’s adage You can have any two of three things in a project:You can get it done on timeYou can get it done within budgeted costYou can get it done properly/well If you are willing to wait, you can get the job done right, within cost. If you are willing to spend the money, you can get the job done on time.Or you can get the job done on time and within budget; only it might not do what it was supposed to do.
61PRODUCT (SPECIFICATION) Constraint Triangle – can give a useful overall picture as part of the decision making process. Ask the question “What’s most important?”RESOURCE(COST)Cost?All equally impt?Meeting the spec?Time?PRODUCT (SPECIFICATION)SCHEDULE(TIME)
62Some examples of different priorities Depending upon the type of project some types of risk may be more or less acceptable
63Example ‘daily newspaper project’ THE most important factor is to get the newspaper printed and in the shops in time.If it’s too late and the project overruns in time by even a few hours then the whole project is a failure.Time is the priority
64Example ‘healthcare project’ If it overruns by a few weeks then that may be far less important than it actually being a successful project which produces a measurable improvement in patient care.Meeting the specification is the priority
65Example ‘new product project’ If it overruns on time then we may be late to market and suffer competitive disadvantage – but the project may not be a total failure.Time is the priorityIf it overruns on resource costs then the project may still be a success as we have a new product.
66Example ‘a new-improved product’ If it overuns on cost then the project is deemed to be a total failure as costs exceed our anticipated future profit from the new improvement.Cost is the priority
67What is most important for your project? Would you still have a successful outcome if you overrun on:CostTimePeople resourcesMaterial resourcesOr fail to meet your exact specification?
68Exercise Place a coin on the constraint triangle where you feel happy Is this for the whole project? Or:The start?The middle?The end?
69Secondary benefitsConsider at this stage if your secondary benefits are perhaps more important than you had up to now thought them to be.
70What is risk? Risk is the possibility that you may not achieve: Product/project specification – it doesn’t do what it was supposed to doSchedule target - the project is lateResource target – the project costs too much or uses too much staff time
71Project risk increases The longer your project runsThe longer the time span between completion of the project schedule and actually starting workThe less experience you, your team, your organisation has of carrying out similar projectsThe newer the technology or work approach being used
72Tool & Technique Risk Management The process of identifying possible risksAssessing their potential impactDeveloping plans for minimising their negative effectsReviewing them throughout the project
73But first - Risk Management Strategies That Won’t Work
74The ostrich approach: Ignoring risks or pretending they don’t exist
75The prayer approach: Looking to a higher being to solve all your problems or make them disappear
76Denial: Recognising what risks may cause problems, but refusing to accept that they will occur on your project
77Risk Management The process of identifying possible risks Assessing their potential impactDeveloping plans for minimising their negative effectsReviewing them throughout the projectRisk management is effective anticipation in action
78“But what are the chances of it going wrong? Murphy's law is a popular adage that broadly states that things will go wrong in any given situation, if you give them a chance.“If there's more than one possible outcome of a job or task, and one of those outcomes will result in disaster or an undesirable consequence, then somebody will do it that way." It is most often cited as "Whatever can go wrong, will go wrong" (or, alternately, "Whatever can go wrong will go wrong, and at the worst possible time," or, "Anything that can go wrong, will," or even, "If anything can go wrong, it will, and usually at the most inopportune moment"). The saying is sometimes referred to as Sod’s Law or Finagle’s Law which can also be rendered as "Anything that can go wrong, will—at the worst possible moment". (source Sept 2007)
81Internal / External Risks External EnvironmentThings outside of the projects direct control that may result in its failure, but can be identified and monitored via a watching brief, e.g. fire, flood, famine, pestilence and war!, global economic recessionInternal Environment:Those that can occur as part of the project itself - something can usually be done about these
82ExerciseFor your project identify/categorise risk by internal and external
83Influence and Control What is under your control & influence for your project? What can you control ? (and ergo do something about)What can you influence but not control?What is outside your control?
84Tool and Technique – The Influence and Control list Simply identify (perhaps brainstorm to do this?) and list under 3 categories.Things you can control ?Things you can influence but not control?Things which you can neither influence nor control.
85ExerciseProduce an Influence and Control list for your project
86Things which you can neither influence nor control. Have to decide – is the project too risky as there are too many thing you can’t control?Or don’t worry about them as you can’t do anything about them
87Types of Constraint Risks Product riskA risk that prevents you from meeting the product/project specificationSchedule riskA risk that prevents project element from being completed on timeResource riskA risk that prevents enough or appropriate resources from being available to complete a project element
88Risk Likelihood / Impact How likely is the risk?Low, Medium, HighOr Extremely Unlikely (will happen once in a blue moon), Unlikely, Medium, Likely. Extremely Likely (it’s going to happen)Or numerically rank from 0-10 or 0-100
89What to do with riskTry to reduce the chances of the ‘thing’ happening.Try to reduce the impact/affect if the ‘thing’ happens.
90For example the Motorbike rider Reduces the chances of potential accident happening. By: riding defensively, wearing bright reflective clothing, keeping a headlight on.Reduces the impact/affect of an actual accident. By: wearing body armour, helmet which meets British standard, gloves, boots, leathers/clothing with CE approved armour.
91The motorbike rider No activity is risk free. The only way s/he could reduce all risks is to stop riding the bike and use and alternative form of transport (e.g. car, bicycle, roller blades, walk). Each of these will also involve some element of risk.In your project you cannot remove all risk – only minimise the chances and its affects
92Risk - known & unknown risk Sometimes you may not know enough about the risk.A known unknown – information you don’t have but someone else does.Deal with this by finding out from others…An unknown unknown – information that you don’t have because it doesn’t yet exist.Deal with unknown unknowns by developing contingency plans to be followed if/when you find out the information.
94Tool & Technique A version of the Boston Chart High RiskLow ReturnHigh RiskHigh ReturnLow RiskHigh ReturnLow RiskLow Return
95The modified Boston Chart High Risk, Low Return – Avoid like the plagueLow Risk, High Return – Everyone’s a winnerHigh Risk, High Return - May be worth doing – depending on how high the risk and how high the return. Needs careful considerationLow Risk, Low Return – why bother, a waste of time (unless you are new to managing projects and want to gain experience and practice)
96Familiarity & RiskRisk is higher if we are dealing with the unfamiliar.The task itself may be unfamiliar.The setting may be unfamiliar.We can help identify what is and what is not familiar using a risk identity grid. Either for the whole project or for major parts of it.
97Tool & Technique The Project Familiarity Grid Both task and setting familiarSHOULD BE OKTask familiarSetting unfamiliarBE CAREFULTask UnfamiliarSetting FamiliarBE VERY WARY!
98But be wary….It may be the case that we are familiar with the task and setting (the project) overall, but there may be one part of it with which we are not familiar. Be wary of assuming too much. It might be the case that this one part which we are unfamiliar with will mean catastrophe for the project if it goes wrong in some way.
99Group exerciseProduce a risk assessment grid – simple version or advanced version either for the whole project or for major parts of it
100Do you still want to undertake the project Do you still want to undertake the project? What often happens is that we have already committed to do it BEFORE we’ve evaluated its risk, benefit or our familiarity with it!!
101Do you need to change the project? Downsize it to reduce risk – two or three smaller successful projects are much better than one large project which fails.Perhaps you can you change a particularly risky area and still achieve the project’s aims?
102PESTLE AnalysisPrimarily a technique used for predicting the affects of external influences on an organisation. Frequently used for organisational change management.It’s useful for medium-large scale projects. Not really necessary for small scale projects
103The PESTLE(S) acronym Political Economic Social Technological Legal Environmental(Safety)
104PESTLE Analysis ‘how to’ 5 steps 1 List external PESTLE factors for the project - may need to brainstorm and have expert knowledge for this.2 Identify the implications of each PESTLE factor for the project.3 Decide the importance of the implications of the external factors – rank or rate them. Normally this involves assessing their: impact over time, impact by type (positive or negative affects) and impact by dynamics (ie is the significance and/or importance of the implication increasing, decreasing or remaining unchanged).
105PESTLE Analysis ‘how to’5 steps 4 Rate the importance of the implication to the project (e.g. using: critical, very impt, impt, significant, insignificant). This may be further refined by ranking the likelihood of it happening (e.g. using: will happen, extremely likely, very likely, likely, unlikely, remote chance of happening, will not happen).5 Scenario building. Or ‘what if..’ Used to develop scenarios of different alternative futures for the organisation.
106Example PESTLE Analysis grid ‘Thing’ which may changeShort, Medium or Long term?Importanceor Impact& Relevance ?Very HighHigh, Medium, LowVery LowInternalorExternalAction I intend to take or Possible action I could takeInternal = I can control/affect it. External = I cannot control itComplete one box in LHS for each ‘thing’ which may change. Aim for 5-10 things for each of the 6 PESTLE factors.
107What Have We Done Today?Reviewed and better understood project planning using Quad Chart AnalysisCritical Success Factors, Measures & StakeholdersAssessed risks in a projectLikelihood vs ImpactInternal / ExternalBoston Chart of RiskProject Familiarity Grid
108Homework Self study1 Review your QUAD chart, ask for other people’s opinions and feedback. Keep a copy of the original and then produce a modified version which is more accurate. You may need to produce quite a few versions before you get it right.2 Review your set of assumptions, modify, check, improve.3 Produce a Stakeholder Analysis grid broken using the more advanced stakeholder analysis grid. Consider audience as internal, external and driver, supporter, observer. Consider conflicts – need and want.There’s more on the next slide…
109Homework self study4 Produce a Risk Analysis chart using the simple risk analysis grid for the stakeholders5 List any new assumptions you have made and modify your list.6 Ask colleagues for feedback on the above to help improve their accuracy, save on disc and print out. Bring paper copy to the next session.
110Next SessionWork Break Down Structures: How to organise and schedule work into manageable chunks.Critical Path Analysis: How to identify dependenciesGantt Charts: How to monitor a project’s progress